HTS 2001 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Daksha, Spanish Empire, Federal Government Of The United States

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HTS 2001
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Chapter 2 - New Civilizations in the Eastern and Western
Hemispheres, 2200250B.C.E
I 0 . E a r l y C h i n a , c a . 2 0 0 0 221B.C.E.
A 0 . G e o g r a p h y a n d R e s o u r c e s
10.China is divided into two major geographical regions: the steppe,
desert, andhigh plateau west and northwest; and the eastern zone, more suitable for
settledagriculture.
20.The eastern zone is subdivided into two areas: north and south. The
northernarea includes the Yellow River Valley and has a dry, cold climate;
the southern area includes the Yangzi Valley, has plentiful rainfall, and is
relatively warm.
30.Chinas natural resources include timber, stone, and metals. The loess
soil andcool climate of the north are suitable for growing millet; rice may be cultivated
inthe warmer and rainier south.
40.Agriculture in this region required the coordinated effort of large numbers
of people.
B 0 .T h e S h a ng P e r iod , ca. 1 7 5 01027B.C.E.
10.Pre-Shang China was a land of Neolithic communities. Pigs, chickens,
and milletwere domesticated, silk textiles developed, and bronze metallurgy
begun (ca.2000 B.C.E.)
20.There are no contemporary documents to confirm the existence of the
legendary Xia dynasty. Later documents concerning the Xia may be referring to one of
the late Neolithic societies of the Yellow River Valley.
30.The Shang dynasty had its origins in the Yellow River Valley and later
expanded to include territory from Mongolia to Gansu and south to the Yangzi Valley. The Shang
kings ruled directly over the core area of their kingdom and exercised indirect rule over
peripheral areas.
40.Shang kings carried out military campaigns against nomadic enemies and
engaged in a far-flung commerce that may even have included some indirect trade with
Mesopotamia. The kings worshiped the spirits of male ancestors, practiced divination
and sacrifice, and presented themselves as intermediaries between the gods and the
human world.
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50.Shang technology included the use of bronze for weapons and ceremonial
vessels. Other technological advances include the horse-drawn chariot, the use of water
buffalo as draft animals, and extensive civil engineering projects.
60.The Chinese writing system (Chinese characters) developed during the
Shang period. The Chinese writing system of today is directly related to the writing
of the Shang dynasty. The chief written remains are oracle bones used in divination.
C 0 .T h e Z h o u p e r i o d, 1027221 B.C.E.
10.The Zhou territory was a dependent state of the Shang. They defeated the
Shang in the eleventh century B.C.E. and invented the concept of the “Mandate
of Heaven in order to justify their actions. The Zhou dynasty is subdivided into two
periods: the Western Zhou and the Eastern Zhou periods.
20.During the Zhou period, the priestly power of the elite faded, resulting in
the separation of religion and government. The Zhou period saw the development of a
number of important secular philosophies.
30.During the Western Zhou period (eleventhninth centuries B.C.E.), the
Chinese developed a model of government that defined kingship in moral terms. Like
the Shang, the Zhou exercised direct control over their core territory and administered
the peripheral areas indirectly.
40.The Eastern Zhou period was characterized by a decline in the strength of
the central government as regional elites began to rule their territories as independent
states, often fighting with each other. The Eastern Zhou period is further sub-divided
into two periods: the Spring and Autumn Period (771481 B.C.E.) and the Warring
States Period (480221B.C.E.).
50.Technological innovations of the Eastern Zhou include the construction of
long walls for defense, iron and steel metallurgy, and horse riding.
60. The Eastern Zhou is particularly known as the era in which influential
political philosophies were developed. The most significant of these
schools of philosophy were Legalism, Confucianism, and Daoism.
70. Legalism assumes that human nature is essentially wicked and
selfish, and that people will only behave if they are ruled by strict laws and harsh
punishments. Legalism functioned as the ideological basis of the various independent
states as they expanded their bureaucracies, strengthened the power of the state, and
issued written of codes law.
D0.Confucianism, Daoism, and Chinese Society
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