[HTS 3025] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (40 pages long!)

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Georgia Tech
HTS 3025
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Difficulties faced by Af. Americans post-Reconstruction:
Exclusion from land ownership and voting - biggest problems !!!
Landlessness, underemployment, lack of access to political rights/protections
Land = crux of Af. American desire
DEBT !
What was life like?:
9/10 made homes in the South, 80% worked in agriculture, most = tenants
Tenant farmers and sharecroppers often in debt, when contracts ended they would move
to new land, hoping to improve success
South -> West … but very poor, hard to make ends meet for many migrants
Kansas, Oklahoma, & other areas
Many gave up hope of political reform
Fighting for Change (70s, 80s, 90s)/Migration:
Those fighting for change wanted land in exchange for centuries of slavery
Proposal of separate lack territory
“Back to Africa”
Back to Africa” Movement asked for $ from organizations
Amer. Colonization Society, Liberian Exodus Joint Stock Steamship Company
Henry Adams and Benjamin Singleton
Educated Blacks could potentially develop their own enterprise & political structures,
Africa != not thought of as dreamland
Henry McNeal Turner -[ leader of AME Church , advocate of black emigration]
Traveled to liberia, spoke of it’s promise, continued promotion of Africa @ home
Promoted forming of groups that rallied for movement support, encouraged
emigration
Amer. Colonization Society did not have $ or enough boats to carry supporters
who seeked passage to Africa
^ Dissappointed, returned West or settled in cities in South
Oklahoma = newly opened to settlement, “nearest place of safety” for blacks, former
Indian territory pre-1830s
Former slaves, descendants of those held in bondage by Indians
Af. Amer from South attracted to land grants, +7000 migrated
PROPERTY, POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE
Creation of all-black towns
All-black towns were relatively successful
Skilled workers, many shops & service-oriented businesses
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Creation of a prosperous middle class
Municipal gov, University (Langston)
Westward expansion halted by impoverished state of black workers & farmers
Colonists in Africa faced bad illnesses & harsh growing seasons, Western migrants came
in need of help
WEST faced economic depression (93-94), drought seasons, many farmers in debt, scarce
jobs
Mound Bayou: successful settlement w/ commercial businesses, majority black
Langston City, OK: invited skilled blacks from South in exchange for political
liberty/justice
BUT
Blacks in the SOUTH were facing Jim Crow and white oppression
Women continued the same work + took care of home domestic work, Life was very hard
& often short
Some left agricultural life alone > Moved to city, most remained in country...but made
large population in cities
Opportunities ^ 4 Poor White Ethnics & Elite But Narrowed 4 Blacks
Life in the last 2 decades:
Increase in racism, greater segregation, restriction, & exclusion (from higher-paying jobs)
Black artisans/shopkeepers and middle class lost white customers, only blacks who were
not wealthy enough to maintain profit
Men confined to manual labor positions or personal service jobs (higher pay)
Women worked in household service or domestic type-businesses... prostitution
Work as domestic servants, living in the household
Abnormal excess of females to males, Many single women and men in the city
Crowded in city ghettos >>> Violence & crime in neighborhoods (poverty)
Lower Pay, Higher Rent
Black working women standing together, women’s advocate groups
Atlanta washerwoman’s strike (‘81) met and formed washing society, demanding
higher wages > threatened w/ business tax and raising of rent
Offered to pay fees in exchange that they handle all of the landry for the
city
People began boycotting jobs, demanding equal pay
Some worked in industries or combined industrial work and agriculture
Convict-Lease System...black men susceptible to arrest for unemployment,
homelessness...HIGH # in prisons
‘91: labor activists in TN challenged the coal & iron company (major-employer of
convicts), held mass meeting>began freeing men in convict camps in order to get
jobs back (taken by cheap convict laborers)
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