1. The international Society approach is a middle way in classical IR
scholarship; it occupies a place between classical realism and classical
liberalism and builds that place into a separate and distinctive IR
approach. It regards international relations as a ‘society’ of states in
which the principal actors are states-people who are specialized in the
are of statecraft.
2. A system of states is formed when two or more states have sufficient
contact between them to make the behavior of each a necessary element
in the calculations of the other. A society of states exists when a group of
states form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be
bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another.
3. IT is a never-ending dialogue between realism, rationalism, and
revolutionism. Realism emphasizes anarchy and power politics.
Rationalism emphasizes humanitarianism, human rights and human
4. The main point of international society is the promotion and preservation
of international order. The responsibility for sustaining order between
states belongs to the great powers.
5. International society also involves concerns about justice. Commutative
justice is the principal form of international justice. However, issues of
distributive justice are of increasing importance on the international
6. States-people face difficult dilemmas because of the different kinds of
responsibility that they have to consider. There are three distinctive
dimensions of responsibility: national, international, and humanitarian.
1. The relationship between politics and economics, between states and
markets, is the subject matter of international political economy (IPE).
There are 3 main theories of IPE: mercantilism, economic liberalism, and
2. Mercantilism posits the economy as subordinate to politics. Economic
activity is seen in the larger context of increasing state power” the
national interest rules over the marketplace. Wealth and power are
complementary, not competing goals, but excessive economic
dependence on other states should ne avoided. When economic and
security interests clash, security interests have priority.
3. Economic liberals argue that the market economy is an autonomous
sphere of society, operating according to its own economic laws.
Economic exchange is a positive-sum game and the market will tend to
maximize benefits for individuals, households, and companies. The
economy is a sphere of cooperation for mutual benefit, among states as
well as among individuals.
4. In the Marxist approach the economy is a site of exploitation and
inequality between social classes, especially the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Politics is to a large extent determined by the socioeconomic
context. The dominant economic class is also dominant politically. IPE
concerns the history of global capitalist expansion and the struggles
uneven and bound to produce new crises and contradictions, both
between states and between social classes.
1. The most important debate inspired by mercantilism concerns the need
for a strong state to create a smoothly functioning liberal international
economy; that is the debate on hegemonic stability. The most important
debate triggered by Marxism concerns development and
underdevelopment in the third world. Finally, economic liberals have
sparked a number of debates on various issues; one significant
controversy is the issue of economic globalization.
2. The issues of wealth and poverty raised by IPE are of increasing
importance in world politics. The traditional focus of IR is on war and
peace; but the danger of war between states appears to be in decline.
Violent conflict nowadays takes place mainly inside states, especially
inside weak states. And that violence is intimately bound up with
problems of development and underdevelopment, one of the core issues
in IPE . In other words, even when we look the traditional core issue or
IR, that or armed conflict, problems addressed by IPE are of increasing
3. IPE also raises the problems of development and change of sovereign
statehood in a very direct manner. The national economy is a crucially
important resource basis for the nation state. When national economies
are in a process of being integrated into a global economy in the context
of economic globalization, the whole basis for modern statehood changes
in a critical way.
4. The theoretical views of professional economists have recently
dominated IPE. Neoclassical economics presents a simple model of
individuals and their basic behavior. The model – called rational choice
theory—is relevant, so the economists claim, for all spheres of human
behavior. Neo-Marxist and other critical theories argue against the idea
that individuals are always rational and self-seeking. And rational choice
theory fails to consider sufficiently the larger context within which
individual behavior plays out. The critics thus claim that the classical
theories of IPE are still very much needed.
1. Foreign policy analysis is a study of the management of external relations
and activities of nation-states, as distinguished form their domestic
policies. Foreign policy involves goals, strategies, measures, methods,
guidelines, directives, understandings, agreements, and so on, by which
national governments conduct international relations with each other
and with international organizations and non-government actors
2. The relationship between theory and policy complex, because any one
theory does not necessarily lead to one clear policy option; in most cases there will be several different options. Even so, the choice of theory
affects the choice of policy. That is partly because different theories
emphasize different social values.
3. ‘Multilevel, multidimensional’. Over the last two or three decades, it has
become increasingly clear that there will never be one all-encompassing
theory of foreign policy, just as there will never be one exclusive theory of
IR. Many scholars now use the various major theories presented earlier in
this book as approaches to study particular aspects of foreign policy
making. The major theories often contain implication for foreign policy or
elements that are directly relevant for foreign policy.
4. Bureaucratic structures and processes. This approach focuses on the