Final Key Points.docx

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Georgia Institute of Technology
International Affairs
INTA 1110
Tarun Chaudhary

Key Points Chapter 5 1. The international Society approach is a middle way in classical IR scholarship; it occupies a place between classical realism and classical liberalism and builds that place into a separate and distinctive IR approach. It regards international relations as a ‘society’ of states in which the principal actors are states-people who are specialized in the are of statecraft. 2. A system of states is formed when two or more states have sufficient contact between them to make the behavior of each a necessary element in the calculations of the other. A society of states exists when a group of states form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another. 3. IT is a never-ending dialogue between realism, rationalism, and revolutionism. Realism emphasizes anarchy and power politics. Rationalism emphasizes humanitarianism, human rights and human justice. 4. The main point of international society is the promotion and preservation of international order. The responsibility for sustaining order between states belongs to the great powers. 5. International society also involves concerns about justice. Commutative justice is the principal form of international justice. However, issues of distributive justice are of increasing importance on the international agenda 6. States-people face difficult dilemmas because of the different kinds of responsibility that they have to consider. There are three distinctive dimensions of responsibility: national, international, and humanitarian. Chapter 7 1. The relationship between politics and economics, between states and markets, is the subject matter of international political economy (IPE). There are 3 main theories of IPE: mercantilism, economic liberalism, and Marxism. 2. Mercantilism posits the economy as subordinate to politics. Economic activity is seen in the larger context of increasing state power” the national interest rules over the marketplace. Wealth and power are complementary, not competing goals, but excessive economic dependence on other states should ne avoided. When economic and security interests clash, security interests have priority. 3. Economic liberals argue that the market economy is an autonomous sphere of society, operating according to its own economic laws. Economic exchange is a positive-sum game and the market will tend to maximize benefits for individuals, households, and companies. The economy is a sphere of cooperation for mutual benefit, among states as well as among individuals. 4. In the Marxist approach the economy is a site of exploitation and inequality between social classes, especially the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Politics is to a large extent determined by the socioeconomic context. The dominant economic class is also dominant politically. IPE concerns the history of global capitalist expansion and the struggles uneven and bound to produce new crises and contradictions, both between states and between social classes. Chapter 8 1. The most important debate inspired by mercantilism concerns the need for a strong state to create a smoothly functioning liberal international economy; that is the debate on hegemonic stability. The most important debate triggered by Marxism concerns development and underdevelopment in the third world. Finally, economic liberals have sparked a number of debates on various issues; one significant controversy is the issue of economic globalization. 2. The issues of wealth and poverty raised by IPE are of increasing importance in world politics. The traditional focus of IR is on war and peace; but the danger of war between states appears to be in decline. Violent conflict nowadays takes place mainly inside states, especially inside weak states. And that violence is intimately bound up with problems of development and underdevelopment, one of the core issues in IPE . In other words, even when we look the traditional core issue or IR, that or armed conflict, problems addressed by IPE are of increasing importance. 3. IPE also raises the problems of development and change of sovereign statehood in a very direct manner. The national economy is a crucially important resource basis for the nation state. When national economies are in a process of being integrated into a global economy in the context of economic globalization, the whole basis for modern statehood changes in a critical way. 4. The theoretical views of professional economists have recently dominated IPE. Neoclassical economics presents a simple model of individuals and their basic behavior. The model – called rational choice theory—is relevant, so the economists claim, for all spheres of human behavior. Neo-Marxist and other critical theories argue against the idea that individuals are always rational and self-seeking. And rational choice theory fails to consider sufficiently the larger context within which individual behavior plays out. The critics thus claim that the classical theories of IPE are still very much needed. Chapter 9 1. Foreign policy analysis is a study of the management of external relations and activities of nation-states, as distinguished form their domestic policies. Foreign policy involves goals, strategies, measures, methods, guidelines, directives, understandings, agreements, and so on, by which national governments conduct international relations with each other and with international organizations and non-government actors 2. The relationship between theory and policy complex, because any one theory does not necessarily lead to one clear policy option; in most cases there will be several different options. Even so, the choice of theory affects the choice of policy. That is partly because different theories emphasize different social values. 3. ‘Multilevel, multidimensional’. Over the last two or three decades, it has become increasingly clear that there will never be one all-encompassing theory of foreign policy, just as there will never be one exclusive theory of IR. Many scholars now use the various major theories presented earlier in this book as approaches to study particular aspects of foreign policy making. The major theories often contain implication for foreign policy or elements that are directly relevant for foreign policy. 4. Bureaucratic structures and processes. This approach focuses on the orga
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