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Georgia Institute of Technology
International Affairs
INTA 2040
Mark Dallas

Study Guide #1 (this is not everything that you need to know, these are just some helpful ideas)  Know the process of carbon dating: tracks level of carbon 14 to determine the age of samples. Accurate between 58-62,000 yrs.  UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization  IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency  UNSC: United Nations Security Council  DOD: Department of Defense  DARPA: Defense Advanced Research projects Agency  ISO: International Organization of Standardization  Understand positivism: only real knowledge is from science  Know what the millennium development goals are intended to accomplish, and what they are. Use the Internet if you do not know. o Gender equality o End poverty/hunger o Universial education o Child and maternal health o Aids o enviro stability o global partnership  Know the story of the Spanish conquistadors conquering South America. Where did Pizarro land? What were the tribes, and where were they located? Know the regions of South America. o Pizarro: Incas  Founder crops TYPES AND WHY THEY ARE DIFFERENT AND BETTER IN THE Fertile Crescent o Einkorn o Emmer wheat o Pea o lentil o chickpea o bitter vetch o barley o Flax o Larger, fleshier, more oil, more calories,  Where is the fertile crescent? What modern nations does it include? o Tigris and Euphrates rivers o Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Iraq  Domesticated animals, what were the first, what were their characteristics o Dogs then Sheep goat cattle pigs first o Docile, breed in captivity and quickly, flexible diet  and why was animal domestication important to diease? o Develop immunity to smallpox  Disease vectors and transmission pathways. Divergence of disease and disease reservoirs. Rinderpest evolved in Asia, long after modern man emerged from africa, spread across Eurasia and began farming and enlisting the aid of livestock. Rinderpest DNA is similar to measles. Sequence analysis indicates that the two th th diverged sometime between the 5 and 12 century AD. Cattle borne rinderpest is no longer a vector for humans, and does not serve as a reservoir for future human outbreaks (of either rinderpest or measles). While waves of the disease, over history, regularly devastated buffalo and cattle herds in Asia and Europe, animals elsewhere were spared the horrors of the disease until 1887 when it was introduced by accident into the Horn of Africa. In 1994, the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (Grep) was launched. Headed by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Grep initially focused on establishing the geographical distribution and epidemiology of the disease. Later, it promoted actions to contain rinderpest within infected ecosystems, and to eliminate reservoirs of infection (kill all infected animals). Once experts were satisfied that the virus had been eliminated from a region, surveillance schemes were put in place to ensure it did not return. Although one of the last places to be infected, East Africa was also one of the last places to become disease-free. Rinderpest was classified as eradicated in 2011, only the sencond disease to be so listed, after smallpox. In contrast, no divergence has occurred in yellow fever, which still infects both humans and monkeys. So, even if an eradication of the aedi mosquito that carries yellow fever is successful in a given area, the primate reservoir is still available and the disease re-emerges.  Process of malaria infection via the mosquito vector: The mechanism: the plasmodium parasite is found in a host HUMAN first. The female MOSQUITO drinks the blood of the human in order to gain protein to sustain the growth of her eggs. (male mosquitos do not drink blood, only nectar. Female mosquitos do not generally seek a blood meal until they are carrying developing eggs). The plasmodia are ingested by the mosquito during the blood meal. They male gametocyte divides quickly, then fertilizes the female gametocyte. The fertilized oocyte then crosses the mosquito’s gut wall and forms a cyste on the outside of the gut, which soon ruptures to release plasmodium sporocytes into the mosquito body cavity, which are then taken up into the mosquitos salivary glands. Then, the next time the mosquito bites a HUMAN HOST, it transfers the plasmodium sporocytes into the human. There, they are quickly transferred to the human liver, where they assexually divide. They are then released to the blood stream, where they enter red blood cells. After a certain period of time, 2-3 days depending on the plasmodium species, they divide again producing both copies and gametocytes, and often exploding the red blood cells itself. It is these gametocytes that are sucked up by the female mosquito vector, thus perpetuating the cycle. Depending on the species of Plasmodium, extrinsic incubation in the mosquito takes 10-20 days. Males live
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