Study Guide #1
(this is not everything that you need to know, these are just some helpful ideas)
Know the process of carbon dating: tracks level of carbon 14 to determine
the age of samples. Accurate between 58-62,000 yrs.
UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
UNSC: United Nations Security Council
DOD: Department of Defense
DARPA: Defense Advanced Research projects Agency
ISO: International Organization of Standardization
Understand positivism: only real knowledge is from science
Know what the millennium development goals are intended to accomplish,
and what they are. Use the Internet if you do not know.
o Gender equality
o End poverty/hunger
o Universial education
o Child and maternal health
o enviro stability
o global partnership
Know the story of the Spanish conquistadors conquering South America.
Where did Pizarro land? What were the tribes, and where were they
located? Know the regions of South America.
o Pizarro: Incas
Founder crops TYPES AND WHY THEY ARE DIFFERENT AND BETTER IN THE
o Emmer wheat
o Pea o lentil
o bitter vetch
o Larger, fleshier, more oil, more calories,
Where is the fertile crescent? What modern nations does it include?
o Tigris and Euphrates rivers
o Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Iraq
Domesticated animals, what were the first, what were their characteristics
o Dogs then Sheep goat cattle pigs first
o Docile, breed in captivity and quickly, flexible diet
and why was animal domestication important to diease?
o Develop immunity to smallpox
Disease vectors and transmission pathways. Divergence of disease and
Rinderpest evolved in Asia, long after modern man emerged from africa,
spread across Eurasia and began farming and enlisting the aid of livestock.
Rinderpest DNA is similar to measles. Sequence analysis indicates that the two
diverged sometime between the 5 and 12 century AD. Cattle borne rinderpest
is no longer a vector for humans, and does not serve as a reservoir for future
human outbreaks (of either rinderpest or measles). While waves of the disease,
over history, regularly devastated buffalo and cattle herds in Asia and Europe,
animals elsewhere were spared the horrors of the disease until 1887 when it was
introduced by accident into the Horn of Africa.
In 1994, the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (Grep) was
Headed by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Grep initially focused
on establishing the geographical distribution and epidemiology of the disease.
Later, it promoted actions to contain rinderpest within infected ecosystems, and
to eliminate reservoirs of infection (kill all infected animals). Once experts were
satisfied that the virus had been eliminated from a region, surveillance schemes
were put in place to ensure it did not return. Although one of the last places to be infected, East Africa was also one of the last
places to become disease-free. Rinderpest was classified as eradicated in 2011,
only the sencond disease to be so listed, after smallpox.
In contrast, no divergence has occurred in yellow fever, which still infects
both humans and monkeys. So, even if an eradication of the aedi mosquito that
carries yellow fever is successful in a given area, the primate reservoir is still
available and the disease re-emerges.
Process of malaria infection via the mosquito vector:
The mechanism: the plasmodium parasite is found in a host HUMAN first.
The female MOSQUITO drinks the blood of the human in order to gain protein to
sustain the growth of her eggs. (male mosquitos do not drink blood, only nectar.
Female mosquitos do not generally seek a blood meal until they are carrying
developing eggs). The plasmodia are ingested by the mosquito during the blood
meal. They male gametocyte divides quickly, then fertilizes the female
gametocyte. The fertilized oocyte then crosses the mosquito’s gut wall and forms
a cyste on the outside of the gut, which soon ruptures to release plasmodium
sporocytes into the mosquito body cavity, which are then taken up into the
mosquitos salivary glands. Then, the next time the mosquito bites a HUMAN
HOST, it transfers the plasmodium sporocytes into the human. There, they are
quickly transferred to the human liver, where they assexually divide. They are then
released to the blood stream, where they enter red blood cells. After a certain
period of time, 2-3 days depending on the plasmodium species, they divide again
producing both copies and gametocytes, and often exploding the red blood cells
itself. It is these gametocytes that are sucked up by the female mosquito vector,
thus perpetuating the cycle.
Depending on the species of Plasmodium, extrinsic incubation in the
mosquito takes 10-20 days. Males live