INTA 2100 Study Guide
Triple Entente: Russia, France, Brittain
Point was to avoid a two front war.
Secret agreement between Germany and Russia to stay neutral if Germany decided to
attack or if Russia decided to attack.
Wilhelm II didn’t renew the treaty. Russia turns to France for an alliance.
Bizmark wanted alliance with Austria and russia.
After treaty, Kaiser’s ministers looked to Britain for alliance.
Structural realism: Gilpin
Battle of Verdun:
1916. mostly between french and german forces. Longest and bloodiest battle in history.
Moral victory for French. Victory for Germans because it lasted so long.
France property taken by Prussia during Franco-Prussian War
Can colonize and ect., but stays out of conflict with great powers
who was following this policy? Germany, austria hungary, russia. Basically “my gun is
bigger than your gun.” This policy usually means that the country using it is insecure in
international system. International foreign policy method which is based on prestige
Multi has many great powers. Bipolar system has 2 great powers.
Britain, Russia, France
Nationalism within the the Slavic regions (Balkans & Russia) which Russia wanted to
impose on the Balkans so they would have a great influence on them Dual Alliance:1879
Austia, Germany (Bismarck)
Triple Alliance: 1882
Germany, Austria, Italy
Strictly defensive and secret. “our League of Peace”
Britain, Italy, & Germany
Goal: maintain the status quo in the Mediterranean, Adriatic, Aegean, and Black Seas
Italy promised Britain support in Egypt
Britain promised suppport for Italian aims in Libya
Three Emperors' League: 1873
Germany-William I Russia-Nicholas II Austria-Hungary-Franz Josef
Broken up because Russia got mad at Germany (Bismarck) about the Treaty of San
Stefano and said that the Congress of Berlin was a “coalition against Russia under the
leadership of Prince Bismarck”
Regrouped in 1881 for a period planned for 3 years
Serbia, Bulgaria, Germany, Montenegro
Concert of Europe (who were the parties, what were the principles, why did it fail):
Parties: Great Powers of Europe (Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia)
A balance of power system
If any powers needed to go to war, it should be a limited war
If any great powers were in revolution, then another great power could intervene
Failed after German Unification
Franco-Prussian War: Who fought, who was expected to win, who won, terms of ending
the war, results in the international system
France vs. Prussia
Prussia took over Alsace-Lorraine
Unification of Germany: When did it happen, under who's leadership, what were the
results for Germany, what was the effect of those results on the international system
Russo-Japanese War: Russia vs. Japan, greatly hurt Russia for a while
Balkan Wars: Who fought, why were they fighting, Russia/Austria/Turkey/Britain's roles Moroccan Crisis: Who was involved, what was the crisis, what were the effects
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand: Who did it, how did Austria-Hungary react,
who was blamed, what was the result
Who did it: Serbia
How did Austria-Hungary react: Mobolized in Serbia
Who was blamed, what was the result?: WWI, Germany was blamed for being hostile in
1916 – between French and German forces; longest and bloodiest battle in history; moral
victory for French; German victory because it was so long and they felt it was their hit at
World War I: What was happening in the years leading up to the war? Why were all the
major powers feeling threatened? Who were their leaders? What do the various authors
attribute as the cause of the war starting? What was the plan of each major power? What
were the effects of the war on the nations of Europe and the international system? What
were the interests of each major power? What was happening in domestic policies in
each of the major powers?
Foreign Secretary: Edward Grey
Grey’s Policy: wanted Britain to have free hand in Europe. Didn’t want to be committed
with France and russia, but wanted to stay close.
Gov’t was monarchy with democratic parliament (king strictly a figurehead)
Britain’s Policy: minimal deterrance, splendid isolation. Keep Britain uninvolved in
Problem with Policy: After Industrial revo., Britain’s relative power began to decline.
Britain didn’t consider goingn to war with Germany until they invaded Belgium (who
was neutral at the time of invasion).
British interests: control of the seas- needed colonies
Industrial Revolution began in Britain.
Britain gets highest Industrialization first
Remains main industrial power until WWI
Began to practice liberation (more free trade)
Stabilization of Balkans
Had bad constitution
Parliament – Riechstag, only controlled budget (power resided with aristocrats and
Interests when Wilhelm II on throne Colonies
Wanted alliance with Britain but still wanted to antagonize them
Wanted recognition as greatest power on continent
Wanted bigger Navy than Britain (for prestige)
Miltary Plan – Schlieffen Plan
Adopted in response to russo french alliance