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PSYC 3012- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 71 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3012
Professor
David Martinez
Study Guide
Final

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Georgia Tech
PSYC 3012
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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January 10, 2018
Psychology 3012
Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology ~ study of how people perceive, learn, remember and think about
information
o Standardizing products (like cars)
o Cognitive bias ~ we like things that we already know about; we don’t like the unknown
o Attention grabbing different colors, flashing lights
o People are irrational
History
o Cognitive psychology is young study of cognition began at end of 19th century
o Wilhelm Wundt ~ opened first psychology lab in 1879; used introspection
Introspection ~ asking people what they are thinking of/ associating with certain
words
Apple = we think red (or green)
Issues need to be able to articulate; people could lie; bias; can’t
generalize or measure cognitive behavior
o Behaviorism dominated early 20th century
Behaviorists only want to measure what can be seen or measured (reactions to
stimuli)
John Watson father of behaviorism
Image, desire, perception, emotion
Want to see actions (pick red apple between red and green apple)
BF Skinner radical behaviorist
Did not want to hear memory
Reinforcement with reward and punishment
o Pigeons (peck vs turn; ping pong)
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January 12, 2018
Psychology 3012
Wednesday Quiz over Chapter 2
Behaviorism was reaction to introspection
o Freud (not cognitive psychologist but he had an impact) would come up with idea but
would not test the idea
Downfall of Behaviorism
o BF Skinner Verbal Behavior (believed verbal behavior could be explained through
behaviorism)
Chomsky notes that not everything can be explained via reinforcement and
punishment
He says behaviorism cannot explain all creative ways we use language
Tolman’s research suggested that rats learn mazes even without reward
Martin Seligman noted that animals are predisposed to learn some things and
have trouble learning others (dogs may sit but it is harder for them to learn to roll
over)
Cognitive Revolution (1950 1970)
o WWII resulted in demand for research on human learning, perception, attention and
fatigue
o Computer leads to information processing approach
View mind as computer that takes in information, processes and outputs
Flow charts arise
Ex. memory scanning (numbers)
o Noam Chomsky’s influence
Now
o Learned lessons from behaviorism: NEED for observation and measurement
o Interests in mind: “study of how people perceive, learn, remember and think about
information”
o Processing (thinking) required
Stimulus brain (infer what is happening in brain) response
Experimental Data
o Can only observe products/ output of mind
Behavior reaction time, accuracy, verbal reports
Physiology neural activity, brain electromagnetic activity, blood flow in brain,
skin conductance, pupil dilation
Methods
o How do we go about studying mind?
Descriptive Methods
Case Studies examines one individual or group in depth; cannot be
generalized
Naturalistic Observation records behavior in natural environment;
describes but does not explain behavior
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