GOVT 300 Final: Final Exam Study Guide

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Government and International Politics
GOVT 300

GOVT-300 Spring 2017 Final Exam Study Guide Multiple Choice Section - If p is greater than alpha in a hypothesis test, do not reject the null hypothesis. - The form of a relationship determines the effect of the IV on the DV. - Degrees of freedom for chi-square: (rows – 1) x (columns – 1) - ANOVA compares the means of >3 groups. T-test compares 2 groups. - Direction of a relationship between two interval/ratio variables depends on the sign of r and b. - The significance of a relationship determines its sample vs. population probability. - Type I error: wrongly rejecting a null hypothesis. - Confidence Interval: (Point Estimate) +/- (MoE or Error Term) - Research Hypothesis: A conjectural statement that specifies a directional relationship between two variables. - Chi-square (X ) increases as the difference between the observed and expected frequencies increases. A Chi-square test aims to test how well the pattern of observed frequencies fits some expected pattern of frequencies. - The relationship between the IV and DV on the regression line is called the slope. - Parsimony is the idea that the simplest solution is best. Also called Occam’s Razor. - The regression line is the line of best fit in X vs. Y - The Law of Large Numbers: the larger the sample size, the smaller the standard error. - Expected Value: [(Total Column) x (Total Row)] / Total All Essay Terms Lambda: is a proportional reduction of error (PRE) measure of association. (1 pt.) It tells us the proportion of variation in the values of the dependent variable that can be explained when we knowvaluesoftheindependentvariable.(2pts.)Itisusedtodeterminethedegreeofassociation of cross tabulations when one or both of the variables are measured at the nominal level. (1 pt.) WeshouldnotuseLambdabecausewhenwehave thesamemodalcategoryoftheDVshowing up across all categories of the IV, Lambda will always equal 0. (Must have! 2 pts.) As a result, we use Cram
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