PSYC 231 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Social Influence, Ford Focus, Social Psychology

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20 Nov 2018
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PSYC 231
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Lecture 1 Notes
Introduction
What is Social Psychology?
i. It is the sietifi stud of the a i hih people’s thought, feeligs, ad ehaiors are
influenced by the real or imagine presence of other people
ii. Social influence
a. The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other (get rest of notes
online, he will upload soon)
Why is Social Psychology important?
i. No a is a islad. John Donne
ii. Humans are social beings
The Scientific Study
i. What kind of people get along with each other best?
a. Common sense
b. Birds of a feather flock together, or opposites attract?
ii. Scientific methods
a. Research question, hypothesis, data, conclusions, etc.
How is Social Psychology different?
i. Social psychology differs from other close disciplines by its focus and level of analysis
a. Personality Psychology: study of individual differences
b. Social Psychology: study of how an individual acts within a social context
c. Sociology: Societal differences
In-class exercise: yes, listener (depending), no, yes (depending), and yes
The Power of Situation
i. Why does it matter how people explain and interpret events and their own and
others’ ehaior?
Fundamental Attribution Error
i. Tede to eplai our o ad other people’s ehaior etirel i ters of
personality traits
ii. Underestimating the power of the social context
iii. Classic experiment: Jones & Harris (1967)
a. Fidel Castro essays
The Social Situation
i. Approach #1
a. Objective properties of the situation (rewards and punishment)
b. Look at behaviors that follow from these objective properties
c. John Watson and Baby Albert
d. Overlooked importance of how people interpret their environments: construal
ii. Approach #2
a. Construal: the way people interpret their situation
b. Focus on the whole
c. Kurt Lewin
Social Perception
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Where construals come from: human motives
i. Here are a few basic reasons that explain why we construe the social world the way we
do
ii. Construals are shaped by two basic human motives
1. The need to feel good about ourselves
2. The need to be accurate
iii. Motives may tug in opposite directions
iv. Self-esteem Motive: People’s ealuatios of their o self-worth; the extent to which
they view themselves as good, competent, and decent
a. Hazing
v. Social Cognition Motive: How people think about themselves ad the social world; how
people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and
decisions
Why study social influence?
i. We are curious
ii. To contribute to the solution of social problems
iii. Social psychology theories about human behavior have been applied to a range of
contemporary problems, including: prejudice, energy shortages, and violence in schools
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