BIOL 4545 Quiz: Unit 1 Study Guide

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BIOL 4545
Barbara R.Baumstark 

Bioethics Unit 1 Study Guide I. General Ethics A. Details 1. Deontology a. Morality of actions should not be judged by consequences, but by motivation b. The intention of the act is more important than the outcome c. “The motivation is what counts” d. Categorical imperative i. Each person has the duty to respect the inherent dignity (autonomy) of other people; people should not be treated as a means to an end ii. If an ethical right applies to us as individuals, it applies to everyone else iii. The ability to reason is a decisive factor as to whether a living being has ethical standing e. Immanuel Kant i. Morality consists of performing the right actions, which can be described as categorical imperatives f. Limitations i. There can be conflict between 2 categorical imperatives ii. Example • A man with an axe asks you to tell him where your friend is so he can kill him  Categorical imperative #1: do not lie  Categorical imperative #2: do not harm your friends 2. Utilitarianism a. A form of consequentialism i. Consequentialism • The view that the ethics of our actions should be determined by the consequences that are likely to result b. The greatest good for the greatest number c. Cost-benefit analysis d. Limitations i. Who are counted in tallying up the “greatest number”? Adults? Children? Embryos? Animals? Plants? Bacteria? ii. Emphasis on consequences can be used as an excuse for reprehensible behavior (“The ends justify the means”) e. The trolley dilemma i. Pull the lever: one man dies or a family f. “The outcomes is what counts” 3. Determinism a. There is no such thing as free will B. People 1. Jeremy Bentham II. Guidelines/Commissions A. Details 1. The Nuremberg Code a. Stipulations include i. Voluntary consent of subjects is essential ii. Experiments must yield results that benefit society iii. Experiments should avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury iv. Experiments should be conducted only by scientifically qualified personnel 2. The Belmont Report a. Standard of ethics that all government funded research must meet b. Primary components: i. Beneficence • Do no harm • Maximize potential benefits ii. Justice • Ensure that an individual or population is not singled out to bear the risks while another reaps the benefits iii. Respect for persons • All persons should be given autonomy (the power to make their own decisions about circumstances affecting their well-Being) • Persons with a diminished capacity for decision making (e.g. children or mentally handicapped individuals) should be protected • Persons should not be enrolled in experimental trials unless they (or an authorized guardian) sign a statement of informed consent 3. Informed consent a. Essential elements of informed consent i. Research description ii. Risks iii. Benefits iv. Alternatives v. Confidentiality vi. Compensation vii. Contacts viii. Voluntary participation and withdrawls B. People 1. Henry Beecher a. Wrote “Ethics and Clinical Research” 2. Robert Yerkes III. Concepts Involving Intelligence A. Details 1. Phrenology a. The structure of the skull reveals a person’s character and mental capacity b. Brain “organs” become larger with use and can be detected as bumps on the skull c. The belief in a correlation of the structure of the skull with behavioral and intellectual traits 2. Craniometry a. Measurement of cranial features in order to classify people according to intelligence, personality, etc b. Central assumption i. There is a positive correlation between intelligence and brain size c. What can affect brain size measurements? i. Body size ii. Nutritional status iii. Disease iv. Age v. Elapsed time after death d. Samuel Morton i. Skulls of different races were filled with seeds or lead shot ii. Seeds or lead shot were weighed iii. Races were ranked according to weight • Caucasians: 87 cc (rounded up from 86.5) • Orientals: 83 cc (rounded down from 83.5) • Africans: 80 cc iv. Errors of measurement • Improper rounding off • More women in the African samples • Inclusion of a greater proportion of small-statured individuals in “lower” races v. 2 problems with the correlation of intelligence with brain size • Incorrect assumption (intelligence is not necessarily correlated with brain size • Variability in measurement vi. The hereditarian theory was discredited when Boas (1930s) showed significant increases in cranial size in the US from one generation to the next, undermining the notion that genetics and race determined intelligence 3. Eugenics a. Well born b. The directed genetic improvement of the human species c. Positive eugenics i. The perpetuation of good alleles by encouragement of breeding or be genetic manipulation ii. Example: fitter family competitions at state fairs d. Negative eugenics i. Removal of bad alleles through contraception, incarceration, and sterilization 4. Flynn effect a. In the last century, scores on IQ tests have risen dramatically i. Scores that placed an individual in the 90 percentile in 1920 would now place an th individual in the 5 percentile b. Average increase worldwide = 3 IQ points/decade c. Rate of increase has been constant over time d. Increases are greatest on non-verbal, non-culturally biased tests e. Some countries show even higher increases f. Explanations for the Flynn Effect: unknown i. One explanation cannot be given: heredity ii. 100 years or 3 generations is insufficient time for genetic influences to be a factor iii. Therefore, scores on IQ tests must be susceptible in some way to environmental factors 5. IQ a. Howard Gardner’s definition of intelligence i. A set of skills that enables a person to resolve genuine problems in life ii. The ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture iii. The potential for recognizing or creating problems, thereby establishing the necessity for new knowledge b. Mass IQ tests i. Measure • Intelligence (?) • Reading ability (usually) • Vision • Attitude toward test taking and achievement • Hand eye coordination • Biological clock • Intuition c. The Immigration Act of 1924 i. Severely restricted immigration of eastern and southern europeans into the US ii. Was scientifically justified in the name of human genetics 6. Twin studies a. Continued use of identical twins, raised together or apart b. Refinement of IQ tests c. Twin Studies i. Identical correlation of 0.771 in widely spaced experiments with distinct subjects is “too good to be true” ii. Sir Cyril Burt’s articles are generally considered to be fraudulent iii. Other geneticists and psychologists continue to report correlation coefficients between IQ and heredity of around 0.75 (where random paring gives a correlation of 0.5) iv. Many researchers estimate IQ to be 50% genetic and 50% environmental B. People 1. Francis Galton a. What nature does blindly, slowly, and ruthlessly, man may do providently, quickly, and kindly… The improvement of our stock seems to me to be one of the highest objects that we can reasonably attempt 2. The Jukes and the Kallikaks a. Kallikaks i. Martin Kallikak • While in service he dallied with feeble minded tavern girl • So she bore children with bad genes who then bore hundreds of the lowest humans with the worst heredity • After the war he married a worthy young Quakeress • She bore him 7 healthy upright children • From these came hundreds of the most worthy type of humans with the best heredity ii. Deborah Kallikak • “Improved” by institutionalization b. Jukes i. It all started with an 1871 public health investigation of the so-called Jukes • A family name that was made up and used to refer to a group of poor white farmers in a “clan” (from rural New York) that was mostly not even related ii. Sterilization would have cost $150 • 92% of her descendants were mentally diseased, sex perverts, illegitimates, paupers, criminals, and murderers 3. Alfred Binet a. Intelligence tests i. Original purpose • To identify children with learning disabilities • To provide them with help at an early age ii. But eventually they were used to rank people and populations IV. Historical Examples of Ethics Violation, etc. A. Details 1. The Tuskegee Study a. Causative agent of syphilis: Treponema pallidum i. Gram-negative spirochete b. Believed to have been carried from the old to new world c. Usually treatable by penicillin d. Stages of syphilis i. Primary stage • A painless chancre appears 10-90 days after exposure • Chancre disappears 3-6 weeks after initial appearance ii. Secondary stage • General symptoms include fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, etc. • Rash appears  May be extensive or barely visible • Symptoms resolve without treatment iii. Latent stage • Symptoms subside and infection goes dormant • Stage can last for 10-20 years iv. Final stage (about 15% of victims) • Severe damage of internal organs occurs • General symptoms include benign tumor (“gumma”) formation, difficulty with muscle coordination, blindness, paralysis, dementia, etc. e. Tuskegee experiment i. Purpose: to determine the effect of syphilis on human organs ii. Sponsored by the US Public Health service iii. Enrolled 600 impoverished African-American sharecroppers from Tuskegee, AL • 399 previously infected • 201 uninfected controls iv. Subjects • Received free meals, medical treatment and burial insurance • Were not told that they had syphilis • Were never given penicillin, even after the antibiotic was convincingly shown to cure syphilis v. In 1997, President Clinton issued a formal apology and Congress mandated that subjects, their spouses, and their children receive lifetime free medical benefits vi. 1964: Declaration of Helsinki: established new rules for experimentation vii. 1966: Henry Beecher wrote “Ethics and Clinical Research” viii. 1991: enactment of the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, aka the “Common Rule” aka the Belmont Report 2. Piltdown Man a. In 1911, Charles Dawson found several pieces of bone near the village of Piltdown, East Sussex, England b. Dawson constructed a face that appeared part ape and part man c. In 1953, the skull was shown to consist of a human cranium, an orangutan jaw, and chimpanzee teeth d. The bones were painted with various stains to make them appear old e. The perpetrator of the hoax remains unknown 3. Pellagra a. Association of feeble mindedness with Southern culture b. Symptoms include skin rashes and neurological effects such as apathy, stupor, and mental deterioration c. Was first recorded in the US in 1902 and rapidly reached epidemic proportions in southern states d. Observed predominantly among the poor e. Traced to died (corn, molasses, and pork fat) i. Corn lacks niacin (vitamin B3) and the amino acid tryptophan, a metabolic precursor of niacin f. Pellagra was found to be vitamin deficiency diseases rather than a genetic disease g. The disease rapidly disappeared after diets were fortified with B3 and/or tryptophan 4. Buck vs. Bell a. Carrie Buck, and institutionalized patient declared to be feeble- minded vs the state of Virginia b. The Supreme Court upheld the right of the state to forcibly sterilize Buck, her mother, and her 7 month old daughter i. School record prove that Vivian (the daughter) was not “feebleminded” st • Her 1 grade report card showed that Vivian was a solid B student, received an A in deportment and had been on the honor roll c. Majority opinion i. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.: allow the 3 generations of women to be sterilized B. People 1. Harry Harlow a. “Monkey love” experiments i. An investigation into the source of mother/infant affection ii. Test subjects: infant Rhesus monkeys separated from mothers iii. Experimental design: monkeys were divided into 2 groups • Received nourishment from cloth mother • Received nourishment form wire mother iv. Results: monkeys overwhelmingly preferred the cloth mother b. Subsequent experiments i. Attached spikes and other instruments of torture to the cloth mother ii. Placed infants for 3-12 months in a darkened box with no social contact c. Overall conclusions i. Results disputed claims of behaviorists that “love” was based on infants’ quest for nourishment ii. Childrearing experts recommended that parents incorporate more affectionate contact with their infants V. Scientific Misconduct (Including Recent Examples) A. Details 1. Plagiarism a. Using someone else’s words, ideas, or results without giving them credit b. “Copying without attribution” c. Louis Pasteur i. The germ theory of disease ii. Vaccination iii. Microbial fermentation iv. Pasteurization v. Creation of the first anthrax vaccine • While experimenting with the use of oxygen to make anthrax vaccine, Pasteur learned of a colleague’s success in using chemicals to inactivate the anthrax bacillus • He conducted his famous experiment using a chemically treated vaccine, while leading the public to believe that he had inactivated the bacterium with oxygen vi. Creation of the first rabies vaccine • Pasteur treated a 9 year old symptom free rabies victim with a vaccine that had given ambiguous results when tested on dogs • He greatly overinflated the number of animals he had used in his experiments • Less than half (~20%) of individuals who are bit by a rabid dog actually come done with rabies d. Example i. The copying/paraphrasing of Jill Lepore’s gun control analysis by Fareed Zacharia 2. Falsification a. Changing the results to something more favorable b. “Trimming” c. Gregor Mendel i. The first geneticist ii. Conducted genetic crosses with pea plants iii. 1:2:1 ratio too good to be true • Very close to the 1:2:1 •  Trim the sides 3. Fabrication a. Making up results b. “Dry-labbing” “Cooking” c. Cyril Burt i. Degree of relatedness • Correlation of 1.0 = the 2 characteristics always segregate together • Correlation of 0.0 = the 2 characteristics never segregate together • Correlation of 0.5 = the 2 characteristics segregate at random ii. Fraternal twins: 0.54 (nearly random) iii. Pairs of identical twins reared together: 0.944 (1955, 1958, 1966) • Very close to 1 4. MMR vaccines B. People 1. John Darsee/Eugene Braunwald a. Darsee conducts his residency in cardiology at Emory b. In 1979 he moves to Harvard, joining a research program using dogs to study muscle damage after heart attacks c. He is extremely productive, publishing over 125 articles by the time he is 33 d. Darsee develops a strong mentoring relationship with Eugene Braunwald, a powerful cardiologist with $3.3 million in NIG funding and over 600 publications e. In 1981, Braunwald recommends Darsee for an assistant professor position at Harvard f. In May 1981, 3 lab members tell Braunwald that they suspect that Darsee is fabricating data g. In full view of lab personnel, Darsee hooks a dog up to an ekg machine and take s multiple sequential readings, marking them Day1, Day2, etc. taking 2 weeks’s worth of data in less than an hour h. Although Darsee claims that this is the only instance in which he fabricated data, Harvard relieves him of his appointment i. Although it soon becomes clear that Darsee’s fabrication of data extends back to his Emory days, Braunwald lets him continue to conduct experiments j. Braunwald waits 5 months before notifying the NIH of Darsee’s scientific misconduct; Darsee continues to fabricate data 2. Rosalind Franklin a. X ray crystallography of DNA that proved DNA was a double helix b. Watson and Crick saw what she was working on and applied it to their own theory 3. Robert Gallo vs. Luc Montagnier a. Gallo, a scientist at the National Cancer Institute, was the first to demonstrate that a retrovirus, which he calls HTLV (human T-cell leukemia virus) can cause cancer in humans b. May 1983: Gallo predicts that the AIDS virus will be a retrovirus closely related to his cancer virus c. May, 1983: Montagnier’s group publishes a paper that reports the isolation of a new virus, called LAV, from a man believed to be in the early stages of AIDS. They speculate that it might be the AIDS virus d. 1983: on 2 separate occasions, Montagnier sends virus samples to Gallo’s lab e. May, 1984: in a set of 4 articles in the journal Science, Gallo announces that his lab has isolated the causative agent of AIDS, which he names HTLV-3. The articles describe i. A technique for growing the virus in bulk ii. A blood test for detecting virus positive status f. January, 1985: LAV is shown to be the same as HLTV-3 g. May, 1986: LAV/HILV-3 is rechristened HIV and definitely identified as the AIDS virus h. 1989: journalist Robert Crewsdown alleges that the virus Gallo claimed to have isolated is actually Montagnier’s LAV strain. Sequence analysis confirms the allegation i. 1991: Gallo and Montagnier jointly issue a statement describing LAV as a highly virulent strain that had contaminated and overgrown Gallo’s strains after being sent to him by Montagnier j. 2008: Montagnier and colleagues receive the Nobel prize, Gallo does not 4. David Baltimore a. David Baltimore i. Co-discoverer
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