[COM 210] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (14 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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COM 210
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Nonverbal Communication 1/11/17
Chapter 1 - Five Perspectives of Nonverbal Communication
Perspective 1: Defining nonverbal communication
o Refers to communication affected by means other than words
NOTE: Taking in all information during a conversation and bringing it to the
forefront of the brain in order to process what the other person is saying and
what they imply
o Tough to separate verbal and nonverbal communication
o Encoding: a signal being produced
We create messages in three ways (speech gestures)
Arbitrarily: no relationship to the non-verbal message
Iconic: non-verbal has some connection to what we mean
Ex: sticking out tongue means different things
Intrinsic: non-verbal message can stand alone
Ex: nodding head
o Decoding: interpreting a signal that has been received
Perspective 2: Classifying Nonverbal Behavior
o The communication environment
Physical environment
Lighting, temperature, comfort level
Examples
Switching classrooms from tables to desks
Spatial environment
Tightness/proxemics
Expected behaviors in certain environments
Interaction space (where things are placed)
Spaces between people
Examples
Switching classrooms smaller room means closer seating
o The couicator’s physical characteristics
Body movements and positioning
Gestures: independent and dependent
Positioning = space, tilt of chin, turned towards or away
Posture
Straighter (high standing) or more hunched over
Follows positioning
Assume things about status
Touching behavior
Self-focused
Playing with hair
Cracking knuckles
Itch nose
Preening (grooming)
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Other focused
Hugging/kissing
High five/fist bump/handshake
Arm touch
Most ambiguous
Receiver can interpret it in a variety of ways
Different cultures assign different meaning
How people react to touch in general
Research
Children and development (consequences without touch)
Aggressive, greeting/farewell, romantic
Facial expressions
A representation of our emotions
Anger, happiness, sadness, disgust, fear,
Paul Ekman
Controls communication
Eye behavior
Eye gaze
The way we look
Where we look
How long we look
How the eyes move
Vocal behavior
Not only what we say but how we say it
Pitch
Volume
Pauses
Speed
Hoarseness, nasally
How the vocal cords work
Perspective 3: nonverbal communication in the total communication process
o Purposes of nonverbal communication: express emotion, convey status (for example),
conveys interest
EX (express emotion): facial expressions
EX (convey status): erect posture, unturned chin, nose pointing up, symbols
(objects)
EX (convey interest): lean towards, nod head, smile
o How nonverbal and verbal messages interrelate:
Repeating, conflicting, complimenting, substituting, accenting/moderating,
regulating
Perspective 4: the history of nonverbal studies
o Primarily after WW II, studies began
o History can be traced back to the Greek and roman scholars
o The 95’s was whe a larger iterest took hold
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