Psych Study Guide Exam 2.doc

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Grand Valley State University
PSY 101

1 Study Guide, Exam 2 (covering Chapters 4-6) Nature and nurture What is nature; what is nurture? Nature: genetics, biological makeup, influence of hormones, hereditary. Nurture: everything that isn’t biological. Social environment, family life, values/morals, experiences, people, events, education. What do behavior geneticists study? Relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior What are genes; how many in the human body? How do we know this? Genes: biochemical units of hereditary that make up chromosomes. About 30,000 genes in human body found from human genome project. How much genetic material do human beings share with each other? Humans are 99.95% genetically identical How do genes determine traits? (hint: two characteristics of genes we talked about) Gene expression. Active or inactive. Genes may be similar but pattern of expression produces different traits What is the difference between identical and fraternal twins? Identical twins- produced form single egg split into two. Fraternal twins- develop from separate fertilized eggs. What are the two categories of twin studies? You should understand how they allow researchers to control for the effects of nature vs. nurture Categories- twin and adoption. Identical twins together, fraternal twins together. Identical twins together, identical twins apart. What was the overall conclusion of the Minnesota twins study (Bouchard, 2004)? Most, if not all of our psychological traits are inherited What is heritability? What did the Twin study find with regard to heritability of personality? Of mental ability/intelligence? Of psychological illness? 2 Heritability- extent to which variation between people can be attributed to genes. Study found that personality is 40-50% heritable. Schizophrenia is 80% and anxiety/depression is 20-40% Describe four critiques of the Minnesota twin study People looking for similarities can find them, some twins spent much time together before the study, some shares same physical appearance which has implications regarding how people respond (ex attractiveness), adoption agencies placement of babies (required to place in similar homes) What do adoption studies show with respect to nature and nurture influences on personality? On attitudes and values? Nature heavily influences personality and nurture has less of an impact. Nurture has a big influence on attitudes and values. What are two key periods in the womb when hormonal influences are acting on males and females (what are the hormones doing during these periods?) At 7 weeks: genes activate or 23 pair of chromosomes. Male determines sex. Hormone production begins. Stimulate growth of sex organs. th th At 4 /5 month: hormones are released and act on brain which may explain development differences in adulthood. What is gender? What are gender roles? Are they driven more by nature or nurture? How do we know? Gender: biological and social characteristics by which people define male and female. Gender roles: society’s expectation about the way men and women should behave. Driven by nurture because gender roles have changed over time. According to evolutionary psychologists, how do mate selection strategies differ for men vs. women? For men: mate selection is about reproduction For women: mate selection is about raising a healthy child Be familiar with David Buss’s methods and findings of what women want, what men want Men: youth, physical beauty (waist to hip ratio of .70), fidelity Women: resources, social status, older men, love and commitment, size/strength What did the experiment by Townsend & Levy (1990) show; Clark & Hatfield (1989)? 3 Townsend and Levy: men attracted to attractive women, clothes didn’t mater. Women attracted to higher social status/better outfit, looks didn’t matter. Clark and Hatfield: men will be more likely to have sex with an attractive stranger. No women will agree. Development What is conception? Define zygote, embryo, fetus Conception: moment in time when sperm fertilizes the egg Zygote: fertilized egg. Survival rate is 50% Embryo- about two week to 8 weeks Fetus- 9 weeks to birth What is a teratogen? Be familiar with an example and its effects Teratogen: agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. Examples: HIV, smoking, heroin, fetal alcohol syndrome What have studies found regarding newborns and young babies’ senses and preferences? Newborns prefer human voices to other sounds, particularly the mothers. Prefer mothers face and smell What is habituation? A decrease in response to stimulation after repeated presentations. Slow habituation = interesting. What do researchers argue about our neural connections when we are born? When does the most neural development unfold? Most of brain cell s you have are present at birth. Growth explosion in connection after birth. What are the last areas of the brain to develop? When does this occur? Adolescence: most growth in association areas (cortex) What happens to the brain soon after puberty? There is a pruning process. Connection not used much get weak or shut down 4 What do researchers argue about the sequence of motor development in babies? What do they argue is responsible for differences in the timing of these skills? Motor skill development is universal but timing is different. Possible reasoning is timing is a reflection of temperament and personality. What is infantile amnesia? What did the preschool study (Pillemer, 1995) show? Infantile amnesia: can’t remember things from before age 3.5 years. The preschool study found that children aged 5 remembered an event more clearly than 3 year olds remembers What did Rovee-Collier do and find? Showed that babies learned and remembered by tying string to baby’s ankle and to mobile. Kicked leg to make mobile move. Remembered mobile and distinguished it from other things. Why does infantile amnesia exist according to contemporary thought? Brain is changing so much and memories get lost in development. Jean Piaget – what peaked his interest in cognitive development? Kids around same age tend to make same errors on intelligence test. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: Be familiar with the stages and the major milestone(s) associated with each stage Stage 1: Sensorimotor stage: from birth to 2 years. Object permanence: object continues to exist even though it cannot be seen (6 mo
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