BISC 1111 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Covalent Bond, Lipid Bilayer, Dehydration Reaction

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Samuel Mohebban Quiz Study Guide Exam 1
1
Chapter.sections: 3.1-3.3, 4.3, 5.1-5.5, 6.1-6.6, 7.1-7.4
Functional groups
o Each has certain properties, such as shape and charge, that cause it to participate
in chemical reactions in a characteristic way
o Carboxyl Group- acts as an acid (can donate H+) because the covalent bond
between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar
Carboxyl acid or organic acid (Acetic acid)
o Fatty acid- the carbon at one end of the skeleton is part of a carboxyl group, the
functional group
o Amino Acids- An organic molecule with both an amino group and carboxyl
group
o Acidic amino acids- Usually negative in charge due to the presence of a carboxyl
group (hydrophilic)
o Peptide Bonds- Two amino acids positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is
adjacent to the amino group of another. Joined by dehydration reaction
Hydroxyl Group
o Is polar due to electronegative oxygen.
o Forms hydrogen bonds with water, helping dissolve compounds such as sugars
o Alcohol (Ethanol)
o Monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (CO) and multiple hydroxyl groups
(OH)
o Hydrolysis- bonds between monomers are broken by the addition of water
molecule
with a hydrogen from water attaching to one monomer and the hydroxyl
group attaching to the other
o Dehydration reaction - When a bond form b/w two monomer, each monomer
gives part of the water molecule that is released during the reaction
One monomer provides a hydroxyl group while the other provides a
hydrogen
o Glycerol- Is an alcohol; each of its three carbons bears a hydroxyl group
Amino Group
o Acts as a base- Can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solution
o Amine (Glycine)
Phosphate group
o Contributes negative charge
o Allows a molecule the ability to react with water, releasing energy
o Glycerol phosphate
Organic phosphate
covalent bond
o Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond
o Most carbohydrate membranes are covalently bonded to proteins, which are
thereby glycoproteins
o Peptide bonds are covalent
When two amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one
is adjacent to the amino group of the other, they can become joined by a
dehydration reaction
hydrophobic interaction
o Contributes to tertiary structure
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Samuel Mohebban Quiz Study Guide Exam 1
2
As a polypeptide folds into its functional shape, amino acids with
hydrophobic (nonpolar) side chains usually end up in clusters at the core
of the protein, out of contact with water
When nonpolar amino acids chains are close together, Van de Waals
interactions help hold them together
o Hydrophobic Substances- substances that are nonionic, nonpolar & repel water
Hydrophobic behavior based on molecular structure (polarity, charge,
etc.)
o Fats are hydrophobic because the CH bonds are nonpolar
o Hydrocarbon chains are hydrophobic and excluded from water
o Hydrophobic interior of the membrane impedes direct passage through the
membrane of ions and polar molecules, which are hydrophilic
Glucose
o Most common monosaccharide
o Molecule has a carbonyl group (CO) and multiple hydroxide groups (OH)
o Glucose is an aldose
o Cellular respiration- cells extract energy from glucose molecules by breaking
them down in a series of reactions
o Glucose is a hexose- 6 carbons
o Starch and cellulose are glucose monomers
o In aqueous solutions, glucose form rings
o Glucose pass slowly through lipid bilayers
ribose
o Sugar for RNA
o Difference between ribose and deoxyribose is deoxyribose lacks an oxygen atom
on the second carbon ring
Sucrose
o Most prevalent disaccharide (Table sugar)
Carbohydrates
o Includes sugars and polymers of sugars
o Monosaccharides- monomers from which more complex carbohydrates are built
o Disaccharides- double sugars consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a
covalent bond
o Polysaccharides- macromolecules composed of many sugar building blocks
o Membrane carbohydrates
Glycolipids- Formed when carbohydrates are covalently bonded to lipids
o Chitin
Used by arthropods (spiders, insects, etc.)
Makes up hard casing of shells around many insects
Polysaccharides
o Macromolecules, polymers of monosaccharides joined by glyosidic linkages
o Some serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells
o Other serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole
organism
o Architecture and function of a polysaccharide is determined by its sugar
monomers and by the positions of its glyosidic linkages
o Plants and animals store sugars for later use in the form of storage
polysaccharides
Plants store starch (polymer of glucose)
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