GEOL 1002 Final: Environmental Geology Midterm Review

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GEOL 1002
Brown Charles E.

GEOLOGYMIDTERMREVIEW Chapter 1- Philosophy and Fundamental Concepts ➔ Geology- thescience ofprocesses related tocomposition,structure,andhistoryof earth and life ➔ Case History = Easter Island → huge population decline because of deforestation, overpopulation, soil erosion, loss of agricultural base, wars, isolation ➔ James Hutton - “Earth is a super organism” → THE PRESENT IS THE KEY TO THE PAST ➔ James Lovelock - “Gaia hypothesis” → (reformed Hutton’s theory) Earth lives and breathes, life affects Earth’s environment, we control the global environment, etc. ➔ How toprolong earth’sexistence: ◆ Environmental monitoringof resources ◆ Environmental mappingand analysis ◆ Preventingenvironmentalissues ➔ Environment-a complex systemwithphysical,biological, geological,ecological,and geopolitcal aspects ➔ Five fundamental conceptsthat need tobesolved/managed ◆ 1.Population growth ◆ 2.Sustainability ◆ 3. Earth’s Systemandits change ◆ 4. Hazardous Earthprocesses worldwide ◆ 5. Value ofscientificknowledge? = continualwork ➔ THE WORLDPOPULATION WILLDOUBLE IN35YEARS ➔ Sustainability - equality of access for generations → measured by the use and consumption of resources ➔ 2 engines driveearth’s changes: internal and externalheat ➔ The 4 interconnectedsubsystems are: ◆ 1.Lithosphere ◆ 2. Atmosphere ◆ 3. Hydrosphere ◆ 4. Biosphere Chapter2 - InternalStructure of Earth and PlateTectonics Structure of Earth ➔ Case History - San Andreas Fault → major earthquakes related to this fault (San Francisco and LA) → huge damage ➔ Chemical composition layer modelof earth:crust,mantle, core,Moho discontinuity ➔ Physicalproperty layermodelof earth: lithosphere, asthenosphere,mesosphere,outer core, innercore ➔ Seismology -studyearthquakesandseismicwaves ➔ 2 typesofseismicwaves: body waves (Pand S)andsurface waves ➔ P = primary or “push-pull” wave → fastest rate of propagation, first to arrive on a seismograph ➔ S = secondary or “shear” wave → propogates slower than P waves ➔ Asthenosphere -lowvelocity zone,majorsourceof Earth volcanism Plate Tectonics ➔ ContinentalDrift ◆ Proposed by Alfred Wegner ◆ Pangea → 2 parts: Laurasia (north) and Gondwana (south) ● Evidence ● Rock distribution ● Glaciationson different continents ➔ Seafloor Spreading ◆ Proposed by HarryHess ◆ Existenceofmid-oceanicridges around the world ➔ Unified theory-study thedynamic creation,movement, and destructionprocessofplates ➔ 3 major typesof plateboundaries: ◆ Divergent - platesmovingapartandnewlithospherecreated inmid-oceanic ridge ◆ Convergent -plates collide, subduction andmountainbuilding, createsnewseafloors ◆ Transform - twoplates slide pastoneanother ➔ Hotspots -volcanic centers withmagmasource from deep mantle,perhapsnearthe core- mantleboundary Chapter3 - MineralsandRocks ➔ Case history: asbestos → fire/heat retardant → removing it is difficult ➔ Mineral diagnosticproperties: color,luster, crystal form,cleavage, hardness ➔ Rocks= aggregated solidsof minerals ➔ Intrusiverocks -crystallized/ solidified beneathearth’s surface ➔ Extrusiverocks - crystallized/ solidified at ornearearth’s surface ➔ Igneous rock textureis indicated byits rateofmagmacooling (slowerbeneaththe surface) ➔ Fine-grainedclastic rocksand limestone in humid region:very weak rocks causing environmental problems ➔ Metamorphicrocks:Changedrocksfrom preexistingrocksundersolid state (changedby temp., pressure,chemicals ➔ Foliated= aligned ➔ 3 fundamental rock laws: ◆ 1.Lawofcrosscutting relationships:rockisyounger than theonesthat itcuts ◆ 2.Lawoforiginalhorizontality: sedimentary rocklayers nearly horizontalundernormal conditions ◆ 3. Lawof superposition: rocksbecomeprogressivelyyounger towards thetop inan undisturbedandundeformedrock sequence Chapter 5- NaturalHazards ➔ Case history -HurricaneKatrina ➔ Magnitude -the intensityof a natural hazard intermsof the amountof energy released ➔ Frequency -recurrenceinterval of adisastrous event ➔ Pre-responseto hazards:LIED ◆ Land-useplanning ◆ Insurance ◆ Evacuation planning ◆ Disasterawareness ➔ Land-use changecan amplify the impactrisksofnatural hazards ◆ Deforestation ◆ Massivedeforestation ◆ Inappropriate construction code Chapter 6 - Earthquakes and RelatedPhenomena ➔ Case history: earthquakeinHaiti ➔ Causeof earthquakes:release ofstress and strain in rocks ➔ Smaller earthquakesare induced byhuman activities ➔ Richter scale:measures amplitude of seismicwaves ➔ Most earthquakesare concentratedalong lithosphericplateboundaries, ➔ Fault types:normal, reverse, thrust, strike-slip ➔ Ground Acceleration ◆ Related to the amplitudeof seismicwavesand itsacceleration ◆ Measuredby accelerometers in termsof gravityacceleration ➔ Stages of earthquakecycle ◆ 1. Inactivityandaftershock ◆ 2.Stress accumulation ◆ 3. Foreshocks -precursors ◆ 4. Mainshock ➔ Primary effects ◆ Ground shaking, tilting
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