CULTBLF 23 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic Literature, Bible Christian Church

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Creed: A dogmatic statement of Christian belief. The most famous creed is the Nicene Creed.
Usually creeds include “belief-that” propositions.
Halakhah: The set of Jewish Law established by rabbinic scholars in the oral torah. Jewish
interpretation of practice / guidance for how one behaves  “the way.” Halakhah includes
Mekhilta, Mishnah, and Gemara as well as portions from the written Torah and medieval
commentary.
Holy Spirit: One of the three divine manifestations of God according to Christianity, along with
the Father and the Son. The Holy Spirit is God’s instrument for creating and bestowing life, who
communicates with the prophets and the Church, in order to give Christians proximity to God.
According to Western Christianity, the Holy Spirit comes from both the Father and the Son, and
according to Eastern Christianity, the Holy Spirit comes from only the Father. In Judaism there
is a feeling of the Holy Spirit but it is not seen as an independent being of God.
The Chosen People: The idea that the Israelites were “Chosen” by God as his preferred
people, with whom he had a covenant. In Judaism, this is a central tenant of belief; they believe
that they are Chosen, which drives them to practices such as embracing social justice.
Christians, on the other hand, do not believe that they are the chosen people; they believe that
God loves all people.
587 BCE: The year that the first temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians. This
marks the beginning of the second temple period, which ended in 70 CE.
70 CE: The year of the destruction of the second Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans. This
event marked the dispersion of the Jewish people. This was considered to be a Roman victory
and as such, the Romans erected the Arch of Titus, which dominates the Roman Forum to this
day.
Year 0: This is often mistaken to be the year that Jesus Christ was born. This year actually does
not exist; BC (before Christ) years end at 1 BC and the AD series begins the following year at
AD 1.
Apocrypha, apocryphal books: Extra books from the Old Testament that exist in the
Protestant Bible but not in the Roman Catholic Bible (Latin Vulgate) and the Hebrew Bible.
These are not considered to be canonical by the Jews because they were dated post-5th century
BCE.
A category of books found in the Protestant Bibles, although some of them are found in Catholic
Bibles; these books were written by Jews, some in Hebrew originally, but are not found in the
Hebrew Bible; traditionalists claim that the Jews didn’t keep the apocryphal books because
many of them were composed in Greek and after the 5th century BC
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Allegorical Method, Allegory: The method of interpreting the Bible that assumes that the text
has various levels of meaning, and focuses on the spiritual sense of the text as opposed to the
literal. This method often results in metaphorical interpretations of the text.
What are the three parts of the Jewish Bible? The Hebrew Bible consists of 1) The Torah (5
Books of Moses) 2) Neviim: The Prophets, and 3) Ketuvim: The Writings. In total the Jewish
Bible contains 24 books.
What are the four parts of the Christian Old Testament?
The Christian Old Testament includes 1) The Law (the Jewish Torah) 2) Histories 3)
Wisdom/Poetry and 4)Prophecy (and then the Apocrypha in the Protestant Bible)
Pentateuch: The Greek term for the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible (Genesis, Exodus,
Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy)
Torah: In Judaism, refers to both the Five Books of Moses themselves (the Torah), as well as
all of traditional Jewish learning (Torah).
How many books in the Hebrew Bible? There are 24 books in the Hebrew Bible, split
between the Torah, Neviim and Ketuvim.
Dogma: Something held as an established opinion, a doctrine or body of doctrines concerning
faith or morals that is formally stated and authoritatively proclaimed. belief that can't necessarily
be proven by logic. For Maimonides the thirteen principles of belief, or articles of faith (or at
least the first five) were not really dogmas.
Sanctification: The act of consecrating or making holy. Judaism in one word is all about this,
taking mundane objects and rituals and making them holy.
Salvation: Deliverance from sin and its consequences. This can be thought of as Christianity in
one word: humans are wrought with sin, but by following Christ’s path and abiding by God’s
commandments, they can repent and in doing so transcend their human selves, triumphing over
death and achieving human life. It is also regarded as a union with Christ.
Maimonides: Lived from 1138-1204, a Jewish philosopher who re-interpreted Judaism as a
series of truth claims, known as the 13 principles of belief, which were a series of propositions
about God, Prophecy, and Providence. These dictated what he believed it meant to be a Jew.
Marcion: An early Christian thinker who after establishing his thoughts was declared a heretic.
He claimed that the God of the Old Testament (the God of the Jews) was evil and angry, while
the new Christian God was loving, and argued that Christians must let go of the Old Testament
God. The Church rejected this notion.
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Mishnah: A compilation of rabbinic commentary on the Hebrew Bible from the 3rd century CE
that is part of the foundation of Jewish thought. It includes the book of laws, which gives 613
rules for living a Jewish life.
Moses: Religious leader and prophet who, under the direction of God, confronted Pharaoh and
led the Israelites out of Egypt.
Nicene Creed: The most famous and important creed in Christianity, written by the church
council of Nicaea in 325 CE. The creed declared that Christians believed in a single, almighty
God, that Jesus Christ is a divine entity through which the world was created yet he was also
human and suffered as so. They believe in the crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus,
and they briefly mention the Holy Spirit. This creed became the foundation for future creeds,
such as the Creed of Constantinople in 381 CE.
Oral Torah: Laws, statutes, and interpretations that were not recorded in the Hebrew Bible but
are regarded by Jews as canonical. This includes both Halakhah and Aggada (non-legal,
narrative interpretations), and is comprised of early rabbinic interpretation, including the
Mekhilta and the Talmud (comprised of the Mishnah and the Gemara), as well as significant
amounts of Midrash. It also consists of medieval commentaries and codes, such as
Maimonides. These were originally passed down orally but were eventually written down.
Paul: One of Jesus’s apostles and writer of the Gospel of Paul as well as seven of the epistles
that contribute to a vital understanding of Christian theology. Paul establishes important views
on some of the most significant facets of Christianity, including circumcision, from which Justin
Martyr takes his positions.
Second Temple Period: The period of Jewish history beginning with the construction of the
Second Temple in Jerusalem in 530 B.C.E. and ending with the destruction of the temple by the
Romans in 70 C.E.
Talmud: Set of additional laws and interpretations produced by the Rabbis from the third to the
fifth century C.E. It consists of the Mishnah, the book of 613 Jewish Laws, and the Gemara, or
the commentary on the Mishnah.
Thirteen Principles of Judaism: Principles outlined by Maimonides that dictate Judaism
1. Belief in the existence of G-d: perfect in every way, responsible for creating everything that
exists
2. G-d has absolute and unparalleled unity
3. G-d is noncorporeal: he is affected by all of our physical occurrences (moving, resting, etc.)
4. G-d is eternal
5. One should worship only G-d, no false idols
6. G-d communicates with man through prophecy
7. Moses is our teacher and his prophecies have priority
8. The Torah has a divine origin
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Document Summary

The most famous creed is the nicene creed. Halakhah: the set of jewish law established by rabbinic scholars in the oral torah. Jewish interpretation of practice / guidance for how one behaves the way. halakhah includes. Mekhilta, mishnah, and gemara as well as portions from the written torah and medieval commentary. Holy spirit: one of the three divine manifestations of god according to christianity, along with the father and the son. The holy spirit is god"s instrument for creating and bestowing life, who communicates with the prophets and the church, in order to give christians proximity to god. According to western christianity, the holy spirit comes from both the father and the son, and according to eastern christianity, the holy spirit comes from only the father. In judaism there is a feeling of the holy spirit but it is not seen as an independent being of god.

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