Final Exam review
lecture 10/15: Bernini’s revolution of sculpture
bernini’s four river’s fountain.
church of st. peter’s 1624-33. rome.
baldachin over the tomb. didn’t have any training in architecture. under pope alexander the 7 th
-piazza san pietro: 1657-67 rome, st peter’s square.
Bernini died in 1680. one period of biographical crisis in life. and financial.
focus: how did Bernini revolutionize the relationship between sculpture and boulder?
every piece engages and manipulates the viewer.
construction of piazza navona: put reputation at stake.
-egyptian obelisk: appears to rest above docking perforated base in delicate equilibrium.
perceive it as tumbling first.
-risk as an architect was more astonishing, shortly after 1644
Bernini became almighty ruler of rome, but changed. had plans for belltowers turned into disaster. cut off from
commissions. decide to project fact that career running dry into monument of weight and weightlessness and wetness
-four rivers fountain; monument of a prominent challenge of crisis.
1648: snatched commission from archrival.
central fountain represent four largest rivers of four continents bringing tributes to the center of rome.
-convinced pope to trust in him. 1649 date.
-synchronized rise of sun with rise of obelisk.
-obelisk: square was once a circus. circus agonalis.
-navona oblong navelike form. naval vessels in antiquity. every surface adorned by obelisks. horse races. represent sun. 4
horses. 4 colors of competing teams: times of day and year. 12 gates symbolize 12 months. microcosm. central obelisk
and all dedicated to sun.
-believed to represent ray of sun in Egypt.
-horse races: theatrical and natural performance of crisis and danger.
-bernini gradually intensified risk and instability. emphasized crisis and overcoming as central feature of monument.
survival of antiquity. followed counter clockwise like pagan horse races.
-south, beginning of pursuit: welcomed by inscription. only god that takes notice of viewer. large rudder between his legs. ->
hissing dragon, lioninstable river god with lion next. increasing agitation as you go around in river gods. more cracks and fizzles
in obelisk rising. calmness to agitation culminates in panic . western side where sun gets closer to earth: snake, horse in the state
of horror, turning point is reached. popes palace god remains firm but upright and attentive. horse and vegetation. large fish
under his feet. period eye of bernini’s time.
-abundance of written sources and artworks that identify meaning and impact.
-kircher scientist: dramatic antagonisms and labile equilibrium/kinetic core. problem of equilibrium in nature.
-commission: spring 1648: peace treaty. end of 30 years war. monumental realization of prominent emblem of peace: perfect
monument to show the end of the war.
-fountain mirrors a formula that began guiding principle: equilibrium.
-science to fountain relationship.
Panofsky 1933: connoursoirship (sp): authentication. quality. the meaning of works in historical context=iconology. Madonna and
-botticelli: Madonna and child, titian portrait with faithfulness/loyalty, how a painting is read.
-deciphering of meaning: linking texts to images. images become illustrations of texts. iconology doesn’t show a real interest in the
impact of rhetorical quality of art. represent, signify, and illustrate text, but also manipulate reality. objects have personal
meaning and power in society. Madonna image shapes reality; center of personal presence and adoration and divinity.
-dove on top of obelisk with olive branch of peace, oriented towards north, desire for peace. the end of something disastrous.
-pope innocent the peacemaker. wishful thinking. lethargy. outspoken opponent of war. 1647: after receiving news of murder,
ordered total destruction of town, unprecedented brutality. instability. so hard for him to reach equilibrium. lke he has to walk on
tight rope. almost perfect reference to fountain.
-bernini victim of mood swings. challenged. demolish belltower in st. peters. 1646: mocked pope as indecisive daughter.
-pope turned back to fountain, then Bernini opened fountain pipes. the art dependended on benevelonce, but Bernini ruled over
wet and dry.
-bernini activated space. site specific his works are. -activate space and provide theatrical space for viewer and sculpture through use of light: santa bibiana 1620s. nave of church
statue reacts to newly opened window. affected by light. rendered weightless to impact of light.
-michelangelo tomb of pope Julius 1513-42:
-st. longinus: rome. st. peters. powered by light.
-in four rivers fountain: one god responds to light, blinded by light. hit by a ray of god and turned to a blind man.
-comaro chapel: Bernini. light culminates. 1647-51. hidden light sorce transforms ecstasy of Spanish nun. maria della vittoria.
renders it weightless. light has the power to lift.
-equestrian monument of Constantine: 1670. light hits. Vatican palace. light held up with physical force.
-altar of cathedra petri: 1656-63 rome. act of dying/passing. abstract works of Bernini art. react autonomously to stream of life.
10/17 Bernini and Borromini: architecture in baroque rome
-1 piazza navona prints in gallery. palace on left, not yet the church.
-2 church finished in print.
-fresco map of sixtus V’s streets.
-what happened in rome laid the foundation for the future. shriveled up within walls. long straight streets pope sixtus. area of
green traversed by streets. he also moved four obelisks. 1586. made it into service.
-roads, obelisks, and water. acqua paola 1612: new aqueduct of paul v Borghese.
-everything is labeled in rome. latin or coat of arms. Borghese family heraldry: eagle and dragon. 1605-1620. may come alive.
-urban barberini: bees. 1623-1644
-innocent: fluer de lis and dove. 1655-67
-alexander 7 chigi: trees. and mountains with star.
-bernini as architect
-st. Theresa in ecstasy. cornaro chapel in santa maria della vittoria. 1646-50. pierced by flaming spear, light.
-painting in Dresden shows whole chapter. statues of people like viewers, top is eruption of saints. leaky to heaven.
-light, decoration. no control over original shape of chapel.
-alexander the 17 : design whole chapel? st. Andrews?. embraced by churning walls on outside. façade is simple. curving
arms. oval. generous shape.
-st Andrew was crucified on an x shaped cross. vision of light. painting in high altar, carried by angels. soul of st. Andrew
passed through marble and sculpture. leaky for heaven.
-ornamental drawings: curls curl into and around each other. florid. guiding core.
-two streets cross, four fountains. two rivals had masterpieces. st. Andrews of benini, and Borromini
-san carlino 1665-67: never seems to stop moving. curves. strict discipline.
-doesn’t stop moving inside: optical illusions everywhere/ Bernini is high drama, but Borromini, church itself is high
drama. doesn’t need sculpture.
-sant’ivo alla sapienza: chapel of roman university. 1642-60. pure power, mass and force.
-cupola: building is a series of buldges, like a clover. six leaf clover-ish. s. ivo. can see the triangle with apses added.
compass coming inward.
-spiral lantern on top of cupola: what’s the meaning? tower of babel? but it’s flaming. laurel wreath. graduate gets that.
literal ascent to laureate. iconological approach not so right at first. architecture involves embodiment of culture.
-bernini gets a chance to reshape a whole area.
-peter buried in a hole near a tomb.
-built st. peters over site of hole. huge church, wide and tall. full of stuff. relics.
-veronica’s veil. put on the face of Christ during passion. face on veil.
-holy lance: spear pierced side of Christ.
-columns: spiral column. Bernini-high altar of st. peter’s. baldacchino. statues. cross carried by st. Helena.
-st. longinus statue. Bernini.
-veronica and the veil: frencesco mochi in crossing of st. peters.
-relic may come out again from upper balcony of st. peters.
-bridge designed by Bernini. statues holding relics.
-piazza circle with obelisk and roadways and colonnade. trapezoid plus oval. point where two circles intersect, like a
10/22: Jacques-Louis David and the French RevolutionREVIEW.
revolution wraps up.
-image around which people can rally. -david’s first project: the tennis court oath. never finished it.
-tension. reflect the number of people that were there.
-negotiations with the king around this issue. demands not met. congregated. found the door closed where they were going to
meet. went to the nearby tennis court.
-present this event how it happened.
-highly efficient sketch. pure idea of what he wanted. problem: how to present in a natural way. and recognizable. how do you
make the individuals speak? the language of unity.
used own work as model. repeat the language.
-was not at the event. went to study location. in sketchbook.
-inscribes deputies in space. pulled together by visible and formal lines. pulling them. to a central point. highly centralized and
theatrical. notion of collective will.
-mayor of paris, first president. coincide with vanishing point. symbolic.
-portrait of man.
powerful congregation of individuals. david elaborates each group of figures. how exactly will an individual be represented? see
-idealized bodies. athlete of the revolution. bodies of figures from history paintings, not real bodies.
-deputy who refused to vote with x on chest.
-how to diversify socially the body?
-painted sketch. central part and tried to paint. painted head portraits.
-body of individual.
-use his body to convey a concept of revolution.
-the king originally supported, backed out, brought back to paris, and tried.
-death of marat.
-convey the indication of death.
-can’t understand her.
-women’s actions normally never make it to paintings. male body and image.
1794 fall of jacobins (sp):
-cultural meaning of sexual difference, the role in society. david distributed different function in man and woman. on the same
level as man, and interaction of group of women.
10/24 Manet: from academy to avant garde
-1863: lunch on the grass.
and cabanel’s painting birth of venus dominated painting
-the art world in france and the academy:
-the salon in 1863 in the palace of industry
-the art academy was founded in 1648. any artist who had prominence could become a part of the academy; different from the
French academy. end of 18 century; revolution and david, small body in academy
-the academy had a lot of power: controlled teaching of art, and exhibition of art.
-to show that the French were better
-2000 paintings in 1863 in center.
-artists of the establishment
-birth of venus: cabanel. embodied fantasy.
-the pearl and the wave: baudry. 1863
-the woman’s body.
-assassination of marat.
bouguereau. birth of venus. sentimental.
-gerome: Louis 14 and moliere and Turkish butcher
-whistler the white G
-shocking: contemporary costume and nude. sitting with two gentlemen. she was an actual woman.
manet: copied figures from Raimondi the judgment of paris. 1515.
compared to Giorgione. two naked ladies with two gentlemen playing music. 1505
-olympia: 1863, exhibited 1865 -shocking. prostitute. confronting stare. not smooth
-manet uses titian as basis. venus of urbino.
-manet jesus mocked by soldiers 1863: titian Christ and tormentors
-1870: the studio at batignolles. henri fantin-latour.
bazille: bathers. the studio at batignolles.
monet: impression, sunrise 1874. impressionists. 1974 exhibit.
10/31 (missed the 29 …SANDY!) photography, art and the industrial revolution
-camera obscura: darkened chamber with small hole. against opposite wall, inverted image of outside. thought how eye worked.
used by artists to draft,
-needed light sensitive surface and chemistry to fix that surface.
-silver salts darkened when exposed to light. but didn’t stop.
-1819: discovered hydrosulfite ionized silver salts.
-daguerre brought it to world. defended to academy. copper plate covered with silver put into camera obscura and
exposed then developed with mercury vapor.
-daguerrotype: very detailed, unique image. only single image. mirror like quality. incredibly detailed. superior to any
picture ever generated by hand.
-photography as a means of reproduction: nature grow itself into photo.
-magical automatic image.
-veronica image. exalted status. wasn’t about resemblance but indexicality, authenticity, impressed by nature itself.
-other photographic process: different. used paper. soaked or brushed silver salts on paper. exposed, and had own
developing and fixing process. can make more. made photographs without camera. just putting it in light with something
on top of it.
-scale 1 to 1 same size.
-reversed images in two ways. left to right. and dark things light things. could solve both by rephotographing the
photograph. make multiples.
-not as good resolution as Daguerre.
-talbot’s became forerunner though of modern photography
-both interested in potential avenues of photographs. Talbot colonized domains of pictures with photography. like art
-take world as it is and find art within it.
-transfer from locus of art production from hands to eye
-painters eye can detect picturesque in world and recording is arbitrary.
-photography becomes instrument of empire, covering expeditions, dissemination is swift.
-art reproduction. copying works of art was considered respectful form. photography laying claim to reproductive process.
-trying to eclipse portraiture.
-exposure times were long. several seconds at least. victorian discipline.
-photography’s indifference to subject.
-frederick douglas. thought daguerreotype was fantastic. the camera didn’t care if you were black or white or who you
were. intrinsically an instrument of democracy and egalitarian.
-mixing of classes and evils in photography
-fashioning the self for the camera: power over own representation
-daguerreotype gets replaced: fine resolution and replication. glass photographs. wet plate process. produces images not as
resolved as daguerreotype.
-development in france of card portraits. like calling card.
-sense of multiplicity important to photography.
-millions of cards, images being cheapened.1850s upsetting social order
-3d illusionism. stereoscope. private viewing experience. virtual reality of 19 century.
what did it mean for art?
-photography uphill battle. not the accidental discrimination of nature. enduring typology that the artist discerns
-artist’s hand brings out what’s more important. elevate style and allusions.
-academy was in trouble. photography corrosive effect on art. destroying painting. paralysis of imaginative faculty.
-countering photography with painterly skills. requires unmistakable skill. -notion of finish: guarantee of skill.
-turning photography in a form of printmaking where skill is of essence.
-photosensitive emulsions not equally sensitig. blue more.
-combination of negatives. selection and rejection.
-consumer of photographs using her judgment to create image.
-julia marker Cameron.
-sloppy photography. she clearly didn’t care. no consideration to technical effect. aesthetic of the glitch. overcame
mechanical nature of the medium.
-industrial revolution: important to differentiate human from machine. humans made mistakes. mortality, limitations,
aspirations to values humans can’t reach.
11/5 photography part 2.
-cameron: Madonna and two children.
-cezanne: modernism. relationship with the creation process.
the terminal 1863. landmark of photography.
-out of the studio and onto the streets. and the vapor of the horses.
-degas painting: 1875. by the time stieglitz took camera on the street, representation of street life and accidental qualities have
been fairly well established.
-the question of noticing and looking and seeing modernity as it happens. taking it’s place as antiquity.
-the photography equipment was bulky and long exposure time. sitting still and portraiture. degas could arrest momentary, but
photographer could not.
-general desire for photography across continents. quicken exposure time and make it more mobile.
-photography has a special role: find momentary and arrest it to see the beating heart of the modern world.
-photograph horse in motion. controversy about the gait of a horse.
-Muybridge agreed to help. films that reacted quickly enough to light. and a shutter to mechanically open and close fast enough to
-1878 system of trip wires and cameras.
-animal motion. then human images. combined human bodies with animal bodies.
-thomas Eakins. sequence of figure. captivated international audience.
-still studio photographs.
-late 1880s, mobility. Kodak company. roll of film. mail entire camera back to Kodak. then sent camera and prints back to you.
-2 photographic revolution.
-everyone can partake as a consumer, but now everyone can take their own pictures.
-a lot of collecting of photographs now.
-Stieglitz liked lantern slides. projected on wall.
-the camera adjustments should be simple. match the speed of modernity. dispense conscious calculation.
-find yourself there, get set, be patient, wait until everything is in balance.
-balance in the terminal photograph. zig zaging into depth.
-dialogues within image. horse and man relationship. animality of man. more resonance is dialogue in background between
streetcar and architecture. reminds us of classical order. and relationship of classical architecture. the scene can take on the
monumentality of classical sculpture. man looks away from us; universality.
-modernity is about a different kind of legibility. modern communication: immediate visibility and legibility.
-asphalt lantern slide. can discern figure. subsumed in apparatus. steam and smoke.
-Stieglitz liked steam and vapor.
-minihistory of vapor in art history. stood in opposition to more legible forms. transcendental principle.
photography with clarity.
-notion of materiality giving way into formlessness.
-modernity has transformed the atmosphere.
-lantern slides: the way that the beam of light revealed dust dancing in the light.
-enchanted world outside the scientific scrutiny.
modernity is in the process of material disillusion.
-1890s. bicycling. new road services for bicycles.
-automobile. industrial revolution. assembly line.
-human beings are overwrought, conserve energy. machine is ideal human type. -indefatiguable.
-relationship to speed in racing photograph.