Study Guide for Exam 2
Theory of mind (TOM): understand others as having goals and intentions and
beliefs and desires.
evolution of ideas about mind: started with mind-body dualism. mind is
from god, does not follow laws of nature, animals do not think. evolved
into ape-human continuities. mental evolution. animal cognition is human
Premack-Woodruff: chimps MAYBE have theory of mine
-encultured chimp used symbols. match to sample. half full glass,
half full sample.
-easy picture matching test: movie with bananas out of reach.
choose best solution: passed test. hard picture matching test:
(locked in cage, use key) passed! interpreted filmed sequences as
representing problems faced by the person.
-deception task. bad person might take sadie’s food. good person
shows Sadie where fruit is. bad person won’t share food if they find
it. deceive the bad person. chimp points to the wrong container. all
-chimp needs a human’s help to get food, but human is blindfolded.
only one chimp removed blindfold. the rest just dragged.
-alternative hypo: chimps learn the strategy that works without
VIDEO: rhesus monkeys steal grapes when backs are turned.
Call & Tomasello: in some ways chimps do.
evidence for TOM in chimpanzees, gaze-following/co-orienting
is this: understanding of seeing? (knowing others look because
there is something interesting to see) or reflexive orienting (follow
changes in body, head, or eye position automatically.
-apes follow with gaze even if someone only looks with their eyes.
-geometric gaze-following: follow where human is looking even if
through barrier. evidence they understand gaze meaning.
-representatives of all major groups do it. apes show greater gaze
following than monkeys, monkeys than strepsirhines.
-chimps understand perspective, do they get needs?
-yamamoto: a has to help b get juice. b needs straw, a has objects.
cannot see condition: where a can’t see what b needs. and can-see
condition, where a can see.
-when a could see, gave what needed. when a could not
see, it was 50:50. chimps understand needs.
-child told story of sally’s thing being moved while gone, then asked
where will sally look? 3 year olds say the new place, 6 year olds
say the old place.6 year old TOM. Cognitive evolution: why and how did cognitive abilities increase
--chimps but not monkeys can recognize themselves in mirrors. kids can
by 2-3. chimps can solve physical problems and understand properties.
and bonobos. ai and ayumu with numeral pressing in right order.
CHART: retention of briefly presented numerals. Ayumu outperformed
humans and ai.
social brain hypothesis
-NS favored large brains to negotiate the social arms race.
-relying on finding fruit
-fruit trees have unpredictable locations
-bigger brained primates eat more fruit
-negotiating large home ranges,
-need a good memory to find food, remember danger
sites. big brained have large ranges
-extracting difficult food items.
-big brained use more tools. high quality hidden
-competing in social groups.
-social groups have complex relationships that require
mental skill. bigger brained larger groups.
-neocortex is larger in larger brains. so is selection for
-absolute brain size predicts size of components: %
cerebral cortex, total number of neurons, rate of
-measure of brain size is not correlated with fruit in diet, or
home range size, or foraging complexity, but yes with group
-larger brained animals play more.
-larger brained species: higher ranking less able to pull rank,
because successful lower ranking coalitions.
-larger brained: more grooming partners.
-coalitions, competition, mind reading. other abilities (mirror,
tool, ape language) are incidental. variation in social cog
ability comes from braings being too costly for some species.
-big brains consume a lot of energy. but big brained
have same metabolic rate as small brained.
larger brains need more energy, dependent on
species specific traits: high quality diet
(glucose), rich stores of fat (maintain brain w/o
food), low energy use by other organs (gut)
-primates with high quality diets have larger
brains. small guts, large brains.
-COOKED FOOD likely how humans fuel brain.
Readings: call and tomasello: chimps get goals and intentions and perception
and knowledge of others, but not false beliefs. chimps chose food
human couldn’t see, chimps followed weird way of turning on light if
human hands were not distracted.
Campbell and de waal: ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious
yawning by chimps supports link to empathy-yawn more in
response to ingroup
- Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? : yes, in certain
ways. understands goals, intention, perception,
knowledge/ignorance. but not false beliefs.
- What evidence is there that chimpanzees can understand the
action of other beings as efforts to achieve specific goals, and why
is it disputed? takes food from behind opaque, helps man in video,
followed strange way of turning on light. disputed because some
think they only understand surface level behavior and behavioral
- What do Tomasello and Call mean by ‘behavioral or contextual
rules’? set of behaviors learned by observing others in situations
and enabling behavioral prediction when the same or a highly
similar situation arises.
- In what ways do chimpanzees have, and in what ways do they not
have, a theory of mind? see above^
- Why is it interesting to conclude that chimpanzees yawn more to
in-group than out-group members? shows selective empathy to
their own ingroup members than outgroup. care more.
- How might you critique the Campbell – de Waal study? yawning
not tested in humans, spurious connection between empathy and
yawning, social structure.
Parenting and Cooperative Infant Care
Life history theory
-fetus, infant, juv, adolescent, adult, senescent.
• - Tradeoffs:
-timing, investment, & duration of life stages are necessarily
-need ENERGY for Maintenance (immune function, metabolism,
behavioral activity), Development (growth, maturation, learning),
Reproduction (quantity and quality)
-stage between development and reproduction overlap.
-reproduction vs growth
-current reproduction vs. survival
-current reproduction vs. condition
- Current vs Future reproduction -young, cut down on development to breed. longer future
-number vs. size of offspring (quantity vs quality)
Parent-offspring conflict - Relatedness
-offspring want more attn. than parent can give.
-in promiscuous primate societies, paternal care is rare.
mothers bear reproductive burden. infants selected to
demand more resources than mother can provide.
-mother is equally related to each offspring. infant, mother is
related 100% to self, 25-50% to siblings.
- Sources of conflict
-duration of investment
-amount of investment
-cooperation directed towards siblings.
-under certain conditions, mother will:
-reduce physiological investment (miscarriage, milk)
-neglect infants (ignore, limit care)
-abuse infants (rare)
-seen in humans
Maternal behavior Mother-Infant Relationship
-first social bond.
-bowlby: attachment theory. felt safe, play explore, separation anxiety,
proximity/security seeking, reunion/maternal response. ^contingencies.
mother as secure base and safe haven: maximizes play, exploration,
learning, safety, security, survivial. transitional->provisioned food->independent
-humans: breast milk->complementary with safe and
adequate foods (formula)->provisioning and foraging
• - Mother-infant playing
-body contact, body stimulation, object stimulation, face to
face, mutual eye contact. object stimulation varies by culture
PROPORTION OF 10 sec intervals graph?
• - Among mammals : common in birds,
-appears in certain taxa. primates: marmosets,
tamarins, titi and saki, gibbons and siamangs,
humans. rodents: cali mice and prairie and pine voles,
carnivores: wolves, wild dogs, meerkats
• - Direct vs indirect paternal care
-indirect: predator vigilance, territorial defense
-direct: carrying, food sharing
-Physiological correlates of paternal behavior Paternal care
-hormones: testosterone, prolactin,
vasopressin/oxytocin, progesterone, cortisol
-prolactin: secreted by anterior pituitary: in females, it
promotes lactation, in males, may be paternal care?
-in marmoset, tamarin, titi: fathers more
prolactin than nonfathers. not in goeldi’s
-higher prolactin after infant birth: marmoset,
goeldi’s, not titi or tamarin. higher prolactin plus
infant carrying in marmoset but not others . -trouble of hormonal correlations: carrying
could cause prolactin levels, prolactin could
cause carrying, or there could be an unknown
-male mice: precastration, lots of biting, post,
very little, T injection: more biting
-in golden lion tamarin: low T in birth season, in
black tufted ear marmosets: low T during
period of infant carrying, males with lowest T
carried infant more, marmosets: exposure to
pup scent lowers T, cotton top tamarin:
multiparous males increased T during pair
-fleming: new fathers and non-fathers exposed
to infant cries. fathers who heard cries were
more sympathetic, fathers and non-fathers with
lower T felt more sympathy and need to
respond, and fathers with high prolactin also
more alert and responsive
-do partnering and fatherhood cause T to
decline? GRAPHS I DON’T GET
-yes i think
-is T lower among fathers providing childcare?
yes i think from weird graphs.
-fathers have higher prolactin than nonfathers
• - Evolutionary significance (ultimate/functional
-direct genetic benefits: increase survival, increase
-reduce costs for pair mate: shorted interbirth interval
-promote mating opportunities
Cooperative care in mammals
-appears in certain taxa. marmosets and tamarins and humans and
wolves, wild dogs, meerkats
-cooperative breeding: a social system in which individuals care for young
not their own (alloparenting)
-reproducing adults, nonreproducing adults (reproductive
suppression), post-reproductive adults, sub-adults/siblings
-why? alloparenting is costly. what are the benefits that would have led
selection to favor alloparenting?
-adaptive hypotheses -1) reproductive competition (imposes costs on infants and
-2) mis-directed maternal attachment (kidnapping/adoption)
-3) babysitting (reduces mom’s time/energy on infant care)
-inclusive fitness and kin selection: help from parent’s
relatives, help from infants relatives
-Grandmother hypothesis. adaptive
conundrum: human menopause. proposed
solution: grandmothers shorted the IBI of their
daughters and enhance the survival of their
grandchildren enough to outweigh direct fitness
benefits from having more children of their own
-parenting practice. helps later reproductive success
-5) alloparenting not that costly, reproductive cueing, tradeoff
in exchange for larger social group
-all species with helpers have faster infant growth and
-Case study from human populations:
-Hunter Gatherer Aka. subsistence hunter gatherers. nethunting,
collecting, moving 8 times a year. egalitarian groups of 25-35.
mutualism with ngandu farmers. female based horticulture,
nonegaltarian villages. different infant and childrearing practices.
Aka infants more frequently in contact with caregiver than ngandu
and US allomaternal nursing. weaning: infant initiated 3-4 years.
child little fussing. caregiving transition to other adults. Ngandu: 1.5-
2 years, mother initiated, rice and gruel to wean, crying and
tantrums, siblings caregiving.
-variation in infant care among individuals, populations, and species.
-hormones and behavior are interrelated.
-variation reflect life-history tradeoffs, parental experience, evolution, and
in humans- culture.
-keller: The Bio-Culture of Parenting: Evidence From Five Cultural
--culturally formed parenting stylers during infancy, related to
independence and interdependence.
-free play mothers and 3 month old in 5 cultures
-4 parenting systems: body contact, body stimulation, object
stimulartion, and face to face contact.
-2 styles (distal and proximal) related to independence and
interdependence. -infants participate from birth in sociocultural activities that are
committed to cultural goals and values that inform parenting
--Based on the evidence presented, we relate the faceto-face
the object stimulation system to independent sociocultural
orientations and the body contact system and the body stimulation
system to interdependent sociocultural orientations.
-body contact and stimulation: interdependence. object stimulation
and face to face: independence
-2 clusters: greeks and germans one cluster, lower socioeconomic
instnother. mothers age at birth earlier.
-1 cluster: body contact and body stimulation. indian didn’t have as
muct body contact, anemic not that much energy.
-parent offspring conflict ^ infants want more energy and
investments than a mother wants to give.
-nulliparous: never given birth
-multiparous: more than one
-proximal: more closely related to center of body, interdependent
-zeitgeist: in the spirit of the times, dominant paradigm at that time.
-Gettler: Prolactin, Fatherhood, and Reproductive Behavior in Human
--little known about hormonal architecture of human paternal
-prolactin important reproductive functions: higher during periods of
-fathers higher than nonfathers. fathers of infants had borderline
higher than fathers of older children.
-among nonfathers: men with > prolactin had more sexual partners
and sexual activity.
-prolactin seems to be at odds with testosterone.
-in fish, PRL necessary for paternal care, and induce paternal care
How does cultural context shape mother –infant interactions?
-independence and interdependence.
What do you think is meant by vertical cultural transmission?
-children taking on cultural aspects from parents and older caregivers.
learning from each other is horizontal but starts as vertical. (slang and
other stuff added horizontally) How can this be contextualized within the biological framework of
cc allows mother to change amount of investment they have in child
Social Learning and Culture
-chimps: the most ‘cultural’ NHP.
-hand clasp grooming. cultural, but trivial.
-species-exclusive culture definition: that complex whole which includes
knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and
habits acquired by man as a member of society
-broader: population level behavior, multigenerational, depends on social
learning, explicable only by social learning (not ecological or genetic
-Significance of culture: imagine arriving without knowing how to exploit
environment. burke and wills: cross Australia. ignored local culture. died.
-1) vital for humans: how to process food, identify food, make fire,
-2) nongenetic source of adaptation and behavioral evolution
-lamarckian: inheritance of an acquired trait: giraffes thach,
neck gets longer, passes that down. DISproven in 19
century. germ plasm theory. inheritance only from eggs and
sperm. circumcised men, rats with cut tails.
-modern lamark: inheritance of traits without changing DNA.
-epigenetics: offspring protein production influenced
by methylation of maternal DNA.
-high stress infancyhigh stress response
and DNA methylation (on Cytosine) and A)
change in protein productionhyperactive
stress system and B) offspring DNA is
methylated, similar effects
-dual inheritance theory/gene-culture coevolution or
-culture evolves, capacities for culture evolved
as adaptations, genes and culture co-evolve
-dairying and lactase persistence.
-cooking and reduced guts.
-adaptive culture and social learning biases
-conformity: copy the mean, prestige:
copy the high rank, similarity: copy
-3) group shibboleth (group identification system)
Types of social learning
-places: area copying=local enhancement -behavior of others directs attention to a particular place. adaptive
sig: avoid dangerous places, predators, poison, utilize beneficial
places, increase foraging gains at fruiting tree
-objects: object copying=stimulus enhancement
-behavior of others directs attention to a class of objects or things
that are important to know about (then learner behaves without
adaptive sig: predator recognition, mate copying, food aversions,
food preferences. rats smell food on the breath of a rat from same
colony and has a strong preference for that food.
-milk bottle opening by birds. accelerated speed. not one genius
bird plus imitation. several sites of origin. high probability of learning
without a model. learn as fast from seeing opened bottle as from
seeing conspecific. stimulus enhancement likely, attention drawn to
-japanese monkey feeding behavior potato washing. no evidence of
-behavior: behavior copying=imitation
-acquiring a topographically novel behavior after seeing another
individual use it. birds vocal learning, rare elsewhere. some
primates. adaptive sig uncertain. superior learning system? (copy
high quality calls?) or incidental consequence of cognitive ability.
-imitation reported in captivity, but does it lead to reliable behavior
-observational learning: yerkes field station. 2 large social groups.
-FS1 15 chimps, FS2, 14.
-two traditions pan pipes study. two ways to get food. poke
and lift. taught a few from each group one way. other chimps
mostly just copied without independent invention.
-teaching: private information: active instruction by experienced individuals
-Active. coaching like HG. occurs in all human societies.
-no firm evidence of primates teaching. nut cracking, not currently
-reported for various predators: meerkats convincingly shown. must
learn to catch and eat scorpions. helpers provision with dead
scorpions, then scorpions with stingers removed, then live as older.
-criteria for teaching: A modifies its behavior only in the presence of
B. A incurs some cost or does not obtain immediate benefit. B
acquires knowledge or learns a skill earlier in life than it would
• Social learning biases
• - Sex-biased social learning
-bobo doll experiment. do children copy same sex adult?
children see adult models agg or non agg. put in room with
nice toys but aren’t allowed to play to promote frustration.
children then let alone with bobo doll. -both sexes imitated violent behavior, and tended to
imitate bob violent behavior
-boys more than girls imitated physical agg of same
sex model. girls more than boys imitated verbal agg.
-baloon experiment. infants play with balloon. then adult
model hits or cradles. then free play with balloon.
-boys>girls copy hitting by adult males. babies of both
sexes looked at female models more, spent same
time cradling before and after, and spent same time
-boys looked at hitting more, and increased hitting
time after videos, and hit more when male models hit.
-female chimps practice and learn termite fishing faster and
more thoroughly than males. adult females obtained more
termites per dip. spend more time at termite mound.
daughter copy mothers choice of tools. sons do not, they pay
• - Best models for learning
-rule: copy the successful.
-stickleback fish. 1) copy foraging area of largest
individual. who is best model is stable. 2) copy
foraging area of those feeding better than self, who is
best model changes over time.
-primates: what rules do they use to assess who is
-BIOL: bonding and identification based
observational learning. best models are those
with long-term success, regardless of current
-same species. high ranking old, philopatric
-testing importance of dominance and
philopatry as models: Vervets: 2 ways to open
artificial fruit. pull or slide. alpha female and
male allowed different ways to open fruit.
others watch. one way is blocked. experimental
phase: both ways are open. fruits given to
group or isolated individuals. copied female
more than males. group members pay more
attention to and copy more from females than
males. alpha females better models than alpha
-not dominance or success. maybe
knowledge of environment. lifetime
experience while males immigrate
predictions based on vervet study : -naturally occurring traditions based on social learning
will be found in comparisons between neighboring
-idiosyncratic group traditions should be expressed by
members of the philopatric sex.
-nut cracking varies among neighboring chimp
communities. hammer could be stone or wood. 3
groups. female immigrants adapted to new
-do female influence the number of cultural traits in
Pan? more than males?
-use tools more frequently, learn better than
males, emigrate to new community at
-tentative evidence. # of traditions across
chimp communities varies with # females, does
not vary with # of males
Social Learning can lead to individual or group effects:
-group: shared traits. “culture”: transmitted repeatedly through social or
observational learning to become a population level characteristic not
through genetics or ecology but through social learning.
-do animals have culture? origin of population level difference is normally
unknown. must rule out genetic and behavioral adaptation to local context
-nut cracking. cultural? pros: limited geographically. young take a
long time to learn. females adapt to local style. cons: something
special about the local environment? all learn individually?
populations without it don’t need it.
-capacity for social learning. give nuts and hammer. one
knew how to do it and others didn’t until they saw one do it.
-pro culture: largely confined to geographical area despite
suitable nuts elsewhere. evidence for multiple generations.
social learning appears to be involved. social learning is
possible. adjacent groups have different behaviors.
con: possible ecological differences: different qualities of nut
or other foods (changing the economics of nut cracking)
-experimental evidence: wild chimps. geo close. similar
habitats. negligible genetic differences. one uses sticks to
obtain honey, the other no sticks but some leaves. how
would chimps from each community access honey when
presented in novel way?
-matched their group (stick or leaves) when deeper,
group didn’t eat honey.
-rely on cultural knowledge to solve a novel task. -chimps have culture: population level behavior, multi-
generational, depends on social learning, not
explicable by individual adaptation.
-tools can be useful. nut cracking gets up to 30% calories per month and
important during food poor season
are traditions useful?
-primate traditions vary widely
-produce much food apparently useless
-across populations: no correlation with need with habitat and
distribution of tradition complexity is mysterious.
-adaptive? traditions can be used adaptively, but there is little
indication that the capacity for culture evolved as an adaptive trait
Is culture adaptive?
-why did culture evolve?
-1) adaptive perspective: selective pressurespecific cognitive
ability. need adaptive responsessocial traditions.
2) by product perspective. selective pressuregeneral cognitive
ability->unselected specific cognitive ability
-NHP: culute is byproduct. no teaching, no gene culture
coevolution, no cultural norms, no group identifier. humans it is
-sanchez: The impact of early adverse care on HPA axis
development:Nonhuman primate models
- This review presents supporting evidence that early disruptions in
mother–infant relationship in primates, including infant
maltreatment, are important risk factors for the development of
psychopathology and pathophysiology during childhood and
adolescence. Current research in this field is trying to identify
important aspects of early adverse experiences such as the timing,
frequency, duration, “perceived” intensity of the stressful or
traumatic events, the role of social support (e.g., nurturing
caregiver) in buffering the deleterious outcomes of early adversity,
as well as the role of sex and genetic factors on individual variability
in vulnerability. The use of nonhuman primate models of early
adverse caregiving is helping to put the pieces of the puzzle
together to fully understand the causes and consequences of
similar experiences in humans. These models are essential to
characterize the time course of biobehavioral alterations throughout
development, using prospective, longitudinal studies performed
under controlled experimental conditions and using invasive
approaches that are unrealistic and unethical when studying human
-perry: Social Conventions in Wild White-faced Capuchin Monkeys --five behavioral patterns qualified as social traditions: handsniffling,
sucking of body parts, and three types of games.
-some conventions independently invented in virtually identical form
at multiple sites.
-extinction of several conventions observed during course of study,
rarely last longer than 10 years.
-hypothesized that the monkeys are using these group or clique
specific social conventions to test the quality of social relationships
--to understand socioecological factors, it is necessary to look
beyond great apes.
-capuchin monkeys: new world
-independently evolved many traits that are present in humans and
-large brain-body ratio, omnivorous, extractive foraging, sometimes
share food, skilled tool users, nonconceptive sex, alloparenting,
lethal agg, complex social relationships
-most models of social transmission are about behaviors performed
by single individuals that have a clear adaptive function
-social conventions are necessarily performed dyadically rather
than by single individuals, the role that social conventions play in
the behavioral biologu of the animals is different from the role of
foraging related behaviors: transmissions different than the more
frequently modeled ones.
- behavioral tradition: a practice that is relatively long-lasting and
shared among members of a group, each new practitioner relying
to some extent upon social influence to learn to perform it. Three
-inter-group variation: the behavior in question must be
present in at least one social group and absent in at least
one group. must be seen at a rate of at least once per 100
hours of observation, and must be performed by at least
three individuals. absent: must never have been seen, and
observed for at least 250 hours.
-expansion: behavior must exhibit an expansion in the
number of performers over time (unless all group members
-durability: the behavior must be durable. we arbitrarily
coded behaviors as durable if they were observed spanning
at least a six month period.
You should be able draw the HPA axis from memory including the
structures, hormones, and feedback pathways.
Be able to explain (generally) how rodent mothers program their
infant HPA axis. What makes Perry et al think that the behavior patterns that they
describe should be characterized as behavioral traditions?