Philosophy 22 Study Guide - Spring 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Type Physicalism, Turing Test, Turing Machine

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Philosophy 22
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Philosophy 22: Philosophy of Psychology: Lecture Notes
Lecture 2: Thursday Jan 28th:
Artificial intelligence video clip…. feelings and emotions discussion
REFLECTION QUESTION: Look at each of the premises and conclusions of the knowledge
argument that Graham presents and agree or disagree with each.
Lecture 3: Tuesday Feb 2nd:
The Knowledge Argument
oTwo premises
Prior to release: we assume she is in possession of all physical facts about color
perception
Post release: she acquires a new fact that wasn’t in her possession
oConclusion: There are some non-physical facts (at least one)
More general conclusion: thesis of Physicalism is false
Not easy to define what Physicalism is
Physicalism
oWhat there is, and all there is, is physical
Is this actually true?
Dualist view
Monist view
Say we have objects X and Y
oGather all the physical properties P
oPx = Py  does this guarantee all properties of X will be shared by Y? yes
Maybe this is true for chalk, but what about my laptop? yes
What about a human person?
Properties
oDifferences between INTRINSIC and EXTRINSIC properties
Mediating between sensing and activating is COGNITION
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Lecture 4: Thursday Feb 4th:
Reflection due Monday 6 pm (readings in Canvas DUALISM): If you were to be an anti-
physicalist, would you rather defend:
oSubstance dualism OR
oProperty dualism?
oGive your best reasons to prefer one over the other. Pros and Cons of both.
Graham’s dualist argument {P1, P2, P3)
oP1: The mind and the brain are identical (one and the same)
oP2: The mind survives bodily death
oP3: The brain fails to survive bodily death
Cannot hold these premises all together at the same time with the inconsistence
Graham suggests ditching the first premise. How does that change things?
o2 and 3 are able to be a consistent set
Conclusion:
oThe mind and the brain are distinct (not identical)
o(Simplest way of arguing for dualism)
Deepak Chopra: Life After Death
oExamines life after death and makes the point that this is not a matter of belief, it is
contemporary science
oMetaphysical claim: nature of mind and body
oPsychological claim: life after death
Leibniz’s Principle (Identity of Indiscernibles):
oIdentity necessarily implies indistinguishability
o(one and sameness)  (all properties shared)
oAt least one property that belongs to X but not Y (property p), then X is not equal to Y
X is the mind
Y is the brain
P is surviving bodily death
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