Psych15 midterm 1 vocab.docx

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Harvard University
Psychology 15
Christopher Greene

Ellen Katherine Rothschild Social Psych Midterm 1 Vocabulary Chapter 1:An Invitation to Social Psychology • Social Psychology: the scientific study of the feelings, thoughts and behavior of individuals in social situations • Disposition: internal factors such as beliefs, values, personality traits, or abilities that guide a person’s behavior • Fundamental Attribution Error: the failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior, and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions or traits on behavior • Channel factors: certain situational circumstances that appear on the surface but that can have great consequences for behavior, either facilitating or blocking it or guiding behavior in a particular direction • Gestalt psychology: based on the German word gestalt meaning “form” or “figure”, this approach stresses the fact that people perceive objects not by means of some automatic registering device but by active, usually unconscious interpretation of what the object represents as a whole • Prisoner’s Dilemma:Asituation involving payoffs to two people, who must decide whether to “cooperate” or “defect”. In the end, trust and cooperation lead to higher joint payoffs that mistrust and defection. • Schema: a knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored information • Natural Selection: an evolutionary process that molds animals and plants so that traits that enhance the probability of survival and reproduction are passed on to subsequent generations • Theory of Mind: the understanding that other people have beliefs and desires • Parental Investment: the evolutionary principal that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of offspring. Because these costs and benefits are different for men and women, one sex will normally value and invest m ore in each child than will the other sex • Naturalistic Fallacy: the claim that the way things are is the way they should be • Independent (Individualistic) Cultures: cultures in which people tend to think of themselves as distinct social entities, ties to each other by voluntary bonds of affection and organizational membership but essentially separate from other people and having attributed that exist in the absence of any connection to others • Interdependent (Collectivist) Cultures: Cultures in which people tend to define themselves as part of a collective, inextricably ties to other in their group and placing less importance on individual freedom or personal control over their lives Chapter 2: The Methods of Social Psychology • Hindsight bias: people’s tendency to be overconfident about whether they could have predicted a given outcome • Hypothesis: a prediction about what will happen under particular circumstances • Theory: a body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the world • Correlational Research: research that does not involve random assignment to different situations, or conditions, and that psychologists conduct just to see whether there is a relationship between the variables • Experimental Research: in social psychology, research that randomly assigns people to different conditions, or situations, and that enables researchers to make strong inferences about how these different conditions affect people’s behavior • Reserve Causation: When variable 1 is assumed to cause variable 2, yet the opposite direction may be the case • Third variable: wen variable 1 does not cause variable 2 and variable 2 does not cause variable 1, but rather some other variable exerts a causal influence on both • Self-selection: a problem that arises when the participant, rather than the experimenter, selects his or her level on each variable, bringing with this value unknown other properties that make causal interpretation of a relationship difficult • Longitudinal Study: a study conducted over a long period of time with the same population, which is periodically assessed regarding a particular behavior • Independent variable: in experimental research, the variable that is manipulated; it is hypothesized to be the cause of a particular outcome • Dependent variable: in experimental research, the variable that is measured (as opposed to manipulated); it is hypothesized to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable • Random Assignment: assigning participants in an experimental research to different groups randomly, such that they are as likely to be assigned to one condition as to another • Control Condition: Aconditional compared to the experimental condition in every way except that it lacks the one ingredient hypothesized to produce the expected effect on the dependent variable • Natural Experiment: Naturally occurring events or phenomena having somewhat different conditions that can be compared with almost as much rigor as in experiments where the investigator manipulated the conditions • External Validity: an experimental setup that closely resembles real-life situations so that results can safely be generalized to such situations • Field Experiment: an experiment set up in the real world, usually with participants who are not aware that they are in a study of any kind • Internal Validity: In experimental research, confidence that only the manipulated variable could have produced the results • Debriefing: In preliminary versions of an experiment, asking participants straightforwardly if they understood the instructions, found the setup to be reasonable, and so forth. In later versions, debriefings are used to educate participants about the questions being studied • Reliability: the degree to which the particular way that researchers measure a given variable is likely to yield consistent results • Measurement validity: the correlation between some measure and some outcome that the measure is supposed to predict • Statistical Significance: Ameasure of the probability that a given result could have occurred by chance • Basic science: science concerned with trying to understand some phenomenon in its own right, with a view toward using that understanding to build valid theories about the nature of some aspect of the world. • Applied science: science concerned with solving some real-world problem of importance • Intervention: an effort to change people’s behavior • Institutional Review Board:Auniversity committee that examines research proposals and makes judgments about the ethical appropriateness of the research • Informed consent: participants’willingness to participant in an procedure or research study after learning all relevant aspects about the procedure of study • Deception research: research in which participants are misled about the purpose of the research or the meaning of something that is done to them Chapter 8: Persuasion • Utilitarian function: An attitudinal function that serves to alert people to rewarding objects and situations they should approach and costly or punishing situations they should avoid • Ego defensive function: An attitudinal function that enables people to maintain cherished beliefs about themselves and their world by protecting them from contrary information • Value expressive function: An attitudinal function whereby attitudes help people express their most cherished values – usually in groups in which these values can be supported and reinforced • Reference groups: groups whose options matter to a person and that affect the person’s options and beliefs • Knowledge function: an attitudinal function whereby attitudes help organize peop
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