[BIOL 172] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (34 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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University of Hawaii at Manoa
BIOL 172
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Origin of the eukaryotes
Origin of nucleus, ER, and golgi bodies
Endogenous: different parts of cell came from inside
Original cell invaginated, giving form to nucleus, ER, and nuclear envelope
Anaerobic process
Serial endosymbiosis
Proposed by Mereschkovsky (1905)
Margulis (1981): symbiosis is driving force in evolution
Primary endosymbiosis: led to red alga and green alga
Origin of mitochondrion
Cell engulfed an aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote, resulting in the mitochondrion
Gave rise to animal, fungi, and other heterotrophs
Evolved first b/c not all cells have chloroplasts, but all cells have mitochondria
Origin of chloroplast
After mitochondrion
Photosynthetic prokaryote was engulfed, resulting in the plastid
Based on similarities of extant prokaryotes with mitochondrion and chloroplast
Chloroplast evolution in protista
Photosynthetic protists are algae
Secondary endosymbiosis
Primary endosymbiosis led to red alga and green alga lines
Followed by secondary endosymbiosis in red and green algal lines
Can have occurred more than once
Has more than two chloroplast membranes
Genome of eukaryotes
Thru horizontal gene transfer nuclear genome should be mixture of bacteria and
eukaryotes
Mixture of bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes
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Eukaryotes derived from community of cells exchanging DNA
Biodiversity of Protista
Biodiversity: variety of life; how different groups of organisms are related
Phylogeny: tracing evolutionary history of organisms
Systematics: classification of organisms according to relationships, based on phylogeny
Features used to distinguish btwn groups of organisms that are homologous:
Structure + function
Ultrastructure (microscope)
Biochemistry
Molecular evidence
Five Kingdom Tree
Protista recognized in Whitaker (1969) 5-kingdom system
Monera gives rise to protista
Earliest evolved eukaryotes, at least 2.1 billion years ago
Kingdom: Protista
Very diverse. Most unicellular, but some multicellular forms
Cells most complex among eukaryotes:
In all unicellular species carries out all function of organism
Multicellular organisms have division of labor
Division of labor is important b/c most efficient system
Sexual and asexual life cycle present and variable
Protista was taken out of 5-kingdom system b/c…
Protists are eukaryotes that are not plants, fungi, or animals
Are polyphyletic
Eukaryotes were redefined into “supergroups”
Four Supergroups
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