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FSHN 185 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Micronutrient Deficiency, Nutrient Density, Salivary Gland


Department
Food Science & Human Nutrition
Course Code
FSHN 185
Professor
Banna
Study Guide
Midterm

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BANNA FALL 2016
01 – Introduction
What is a nutrient?
A substance of food that provides energy and structure to the body and
regulates body processes.
What makes a nutrient “essential”?
A nutrient that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by
the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to maintain body
function.
How do we measure energy in food?
Calorie unit. The energy in food is called chemical energy. Some nutrients
provide energy, some don’t.
What is malnutrition? What are the two types of malnutrition?
Malnutrition is a condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either
above or below that which is optimal.
Protein-energy malnutrition- resulting from deficiencies in any or all of the
nutrients
Micronutrient deficiency diseases- resulting from a deficiency of specific
micronutrients.
Overnutrition- poor nutritional status resulting from dietary intake in excess
of that which is optimal for health.
Undernutrition- poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake below
that which meets nutritional needs.
What are the six classes of nutrients?
- Carbohydrates
- Lipids (Cholesterol, saturated fats, unsaturated fats)
- Proteins (all proteins are made up of amino acids that are linked together
in different combinations to form different proteins)
- Water
- Vitamins (organic molecules which are needed in small amounts to
maintain health. 13 vitamins. Regulate energy metabolism, maintaining
vision, protecting cell membranes, helping blood to clot.)
- Minerals (elements that are essential nutrients needed in small amounts to
provide a variety of diverse functions in the body.
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and water are macronutrients because they
are needed in large amounts. Vitamins and minerals are referred to a
micronutrients.
We consume vitamins and minerals in almost all foods. Some are natural:
oranges contain vitamin C, milk provides calcium, and carrots give us
vitamin A. Other foods are fortified with vitamins and minerals.
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BANNA FALL 2016
Proteins-
- 4kcal/gram of energy
- basic unit: amino acids
Carbohydrates-
- 4kcal/gram of energy
- basic unit: glucose
Lipids-
- 9 kcal/gram of energy
- basic unit is fatty acid
- most lipids are triglycerides
Vitamins-
- 0 kcal/gram
- inorganic compounds
- required so the body can use the energy
Minerals-
- 0 kcal/gram
- inorganic compounds
- essential in small amounts for metabolic processes and structure
- iron required to transport oxygen in the blood
What are the essential nutrients?
- water
- vitamins
- minerals
- some fatty acids
- some amino acids
What is nutrient density? How is it used / measured?
Comparison of nutrients with energy in a specific food.
Amount of nutrient (mg or g) = Nutrient density (g or mg/kcal)
Amount of energy (kcal)
What is energy density? How is it used / measured?
Comparison of energy (kcal) with the weight of food (g)
Amount of energy (kcal) = Energy density (kcal/g)
Weight of food (g)
What are the 4 principles for a healthy diet?
Balance, Variety, Moderation, and Adequacy
A balanced diet involves putting the same amount of calories into your
body as the calories you burn each day to maintain a healthy body weight.
Eating a variety of foods is very important as the body needs multiple
nutrients that just one food cannot provide. A adequate diet provides all the
essential nutrients which are essential for optimal health.
Myths, Scientific Method and Research (Ch. 1. p 17-27)
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BANNA FALL 2016
Who and what are credible sources of nutrition information?
- Universities
- Government
- Not-for-profit organizations such as the Academy of Nutrition and
Dietetics an the American Medical Association
- Accredited nutritionalists
What can we study in nutrition?
- Nutrients in food
- How the body uses nutrients
- Relationship between diet, health and disease
- Observations between diet and health
Be able to describe and differentiate intervention and epidemiological studies.
Epidemiological studies - The branch of science that studies health and
disease trends and patterns in populations.
Intervention - The purpose of a nutrition intervention is to resolve or
improve the nutrition diagnosis or nutrition problem by provision of advice,
education, or delivery of the food component of a specific diet or meal plan
tailored to the patients needs.
What is a control group?
In a scientific experiment, the group of participants used as a basis of
comparison. They are smilier to the participants in the experimental group
but not receive the treatment being tested.
What is a placebo?
A fake medicine or supplement that is indistinguishable in appearance from
the real thing. It is used to disguise the control and experimental groups in
an experiment.
Describe and differentiate single-blind and double-blind studies
Single-blind - An experiment in which the person collecting data knows
whether the subject is in the control group of the experimental group, but
the subjects do not.
Double-blind - A study in which neither the patients, the experimenter, nor
any other assessor of the results, knows which participants are subject to
which procedure, thus helping to ensure any biases or expectations will not
influence the results.
02 – Human Body
What are cells, tissues, organs and organ systems?
Cells- The basic structural and functional unit of living things.
Tissues- A collection of similar cells that together carry out a specific
function.
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