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ZOOL 442 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Spinothalamic Tract, Posterior Grey Column, Anterior Grey Column


Department
Zoology
Course Code
ZOOL 442
Professor
Nichols
Study Guide
Midterm

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Biology 442: Introduction to Neuroscience
Neuroanatomy Study Sheet
1. CNS = spinal cord, brain stem and brain
2. PNS = all nerve fibers, ganglia and synaptic junctions outside of the PNS
3. Brainstem = medulla, pons and midbrain
4. The two branches of the Autonomic Nervous System are:
parasympathetic and sympathetic
5. The ventricles in the brain are: 2 lateral ventricles; 3rd ventricle; 4th ventricles
6. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is formed in the ventricles and flows out of the 4th ventricle, running down
the spine and over the brain within the meninges
7. The meninges coat the CNS and are composed of: dura, arachnoid and pia mater
8. The divisions of the spinal cord are: cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral
9. The grey matter (predominantly nerve cells) in the spinal cord is on the inside, while the white matter
(nerve tracts) are on the outside; the opposite is true in the brain
10. The grey matter in the spinal cord is divided into: dorsal horn and ventral horn
11. The white matter in the spinal cord is divided into: ventral, lateral and dorsal columns
12. The dorsal and spinothalamic (anterolateral) tracts carry sensory information up to the brain, whereas
the corticospinal (lateral) tracts carry motor commands down from the brain
13. The somatosensory pathway carries information about touch up to the somatosensory cortex in brain
via 3 synapses
14. The spinothalamic pathway carries information about pain and temperature up to somatosensory
cortex in the brain via 3 synapses
15. The corticospinal tract carries motor commands down from primary motor cortex to the spinal cord and
out to the muscles via 2 synapses.
16. The 3 divisions of the brainstem are specialized for different functions, including especially the role of
the medulla in respiration (control of breathing)
17. The reticular formation in the brainstem plays a key role in arousal necessary for consciousness
18. There are 12 cranial nerves
19. There are 4 basic divisions of the brain: telencephalon (cerebrum and basal ganglia); diencephalon
(thalamus and hypothalamus); midbrain; hindbrain (pons, medulla, cerebellum)
20. The cerebral cortex has 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal
21. The cerebral hemispheres are connected via the corpus callosum
22. The thalamus is the “gateway” to the brain, relaying sensory input to specific brain regions while also
projecting to and receiving input from nearly every part of the brain
23. The primary motor cortex is in the frontal lobe, just in front of the central sulcus, and gives rise to the
‘final common pathway’ for motor control
24. The somatosensory cortex is in the parietal lobe, just behind the central sulcus
25. The visual cortex occupies most of the occipital lobe
26. The auditory cortex resides on the superior and medial aspect of the temporal lobe
27. The basal ganglia is composed of the caudate-putamen (striatum) and globus pallidus, and functions
in the initiation of movement
28. The output from the globus pallidus connects through the thalamus, which then connects to primary
motor cortex
29. The cerebellum computes sensory and balance feedback, and motor patterning
30. The limbic system is involved with emotions, memory and learning
31. There are two key components to the limbic system to know: the amygdala and the hippocampus
32. The amygdala is involved in linking emotions to memory (eg. fear of snakes)
33. The hippocampus is involved in processing memory within context (space)
34. The prefrontal cortex is another key area important for memory and learning, as well as executive
function and personality
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