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Final

ANT 102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Red Ruffed Lemur, Terrestrial Locomotion, Hamadryas Baboon


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT 102
Professor
Maria Smith
Study Guide
Final

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Anthropology 102
10/14
Study guide – test 3
Vocabulary
suspensary locomotion
lesser ape
patas monkey
troop
Platyrrhines
great apes
hamadryas baboon
alpha male
prosimians
savannah baboon
sectorial premolar
silverback
brachiation
knuckle walking
display
“The Carolina
five”
Lemur
bipedalism
thick molar enamel
Jane Goodall
Loris
arboreal
quadruped
Y-5 molar pattern
Dian Fossey
Madagascar
arboreal
adaptation
fission-fusion
Takayoshi Kano
Frans de Waal
grooming
foramen magnum
vertical clinging
and leaping
dental comb
grooming claw
nocturnal
multiple
male/multiple
female
prehensile tail
dominance
hierarchy
terrestrial
quadrupeds
single
male/multiple
female
aye-aye
adaptive radiation
macaque
binocular
stereoscopic
vision
Bonobo
arboreal
terrestrial
rhinarium
anthropoids
Pan
Hominoidea
Homininae
Homo
Hominidae
Hominini
Catarrhines
Sally Boyson
opposable thumb
pentadactyly
red ruffed lemur

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Study questions – be sure to check Blackboard for relevant PPT presentations
1. Know the basic primate characteristics. What is this morphology an adaptation too? (hint: it
isn’t terrestrial).
Body
Tendency Towards Uprightness
Generalized Limb Structure
Retention of clavicle
Foramen magnum - “big hole” in skull where spinal cord connects
Monkey vs dog - shows primates are vertical
Collar bone - strut keeps arms lateral (primate) - dogs don’t have
collarbone
Hands/Feet
Pentadactyly - 5 digits
Opposable thumb - we can grasp
Nails instead of claws - more nerve endings, tactile sensitivity
Tactile Pads - investigating environment with fingers
Diet/Teeth
Generalized diet - omnivore
Generalized dental pattern - tear, chew, slice, grind, etc. omnivores = bunodant
Brain/senses
Color vision
Stereoscopic vision
Eyes rotated forward - allows us to judge distance very well - overlapping
vision
Decreased reliance on smell
Primate: shorter snout, larger brain, orbits forward-facing
Dog: longer snout, smaller brain, orbits more laterally oriented
Expansion of Cerebral Cortex
More efficient reproduction
Longer gestation (9 months)
Fewer offspring
Longer period of dependency
Longer life
Inclusion of male
Dependence-Learned Behavior
Become good members of their community
Social animals
2. What are prosimians? Why do they still exist? Where are lemurs found and why?
Locomotor behavior of prosimians? Tarsiers? Why are Tarsiers a taxonomic problem? Know
the aye-aye food procuring behavior (films: Lemurs with John Cleese and “Prime Time
Primates”).

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Prosimians: loris, lemur, tarsier - exist out of dumb luck!
Lemur
Vision: post orbital bar
Instead of an eye socket, they have a ring of bone - looks like goggles
Smell: longer snout, wet rhinarium, split upper lip
Hands/feet: some digits have claws
Grooming claw
Teeth: high pointy cusps, tooth comb
Locomotion: vertical clinging and leaping
Found in Madagascar - one theory is that they arrived there on a raft/floating
vegetation by slowing down their metabolism
Why Madagascar? No predators
Tarsier
More monkey-like than prosimian
Found in the islands of Southeast asia
Why they are alive: nocturnal and eat insects
Enclosed eye orbit: more “advanced” than lemur
Smell: dry rhinarium
Wide set nostrils
Straddles the fence with respect to taxonomy - are they monkey or prosimian?
Aye-aye
Nocturnal
Chopstick finger: used for scavenging food and eating
Tap-tapping: helps them find cavities in the wood in order to get food: making
mental maps, similar to humans
Facing extinction: killed by natives because they are thought of as “evil spirits”
3. What are the major morphological differences between old world and new world primates?
What is the difference between an ape and a monkey?
Monkeys
Eyes: enclosed in bone orbits
Molars: with flatter cusps than prosimians
Quadrupedal
Robust clavicle - keeps arms lateral
Narrow thorax
New World Monkeys
Platyrrhini nose (drill holes on the side - similar to tarsier)
All arboreal
Prehensile tail (can hang from tails, acts like another finger)
Some species retain claws
Less complex social organization
Less mobile face
Old World Monkeys
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