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Final

ANT 102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Birth Weight, Chromosome, Neanderthal


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT 102
Professor
Kyle Smith
Study Guide
Final

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FINAL ANTHROPOLOGY EXAM
Eye color
-Amount of melanin pigment in anterior layer of Iris AND
-Optical phenomenon- Tyndall scattering
-Blue eyes are a phenomenon of latitudes where you have a lot of sunlight
-All blue eyed humans share a single common ancestor and its a form of albinism.
Hair color
- 11000 years ago
- blonde hair is a mutation
Lactose intolerant
-normal condition is for us to not be able to digest milk
-milk is designed to be the food of offspring
-humans get their milk from mom
-we are transitioned to move from milk to real food
- normally at age 6 or 7 our enzymes that digest milk are supposed to die off
-simple genetic mutation—enzymes stay so you can continue to drink milk
-drink a little bit of milk everyday and build up a tolerance
*people who have a long history of cattle herding or horse herding are the people who
have the highest frequency of being lactose intolerant.
*environmental change that made the mutation for continuing to produce the enzyme
Hypertension
-rampant particularly in African americans.
-blood requires pressure to circulate through the body
if your body is producing too much pressure you are said to have hypertension

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-strain blood vessels –damage vessel walls – stress kidneys- leading to kidney failure
-predisposes to clotting, stroke, heart attack
-control hypertension- medication or go on a diet (stop eating salt) salt is the cause of
hypertension.
*African Americans- seem predisposed to hypertension
-Nothing to do with socio-economics, but everything to do with genetics
-HEAT STRESS- when you perspire you lose electrolytes and salt.
**African americans aren’t from tropical forrest , they evolved from the savannah- hot
dry environment where you will perspire but you will lose body salt unless you have a
mechanism to replenish body salt. African americans have a mechanism that retains the
salt so they have mor cases of hypertension
Diabetes
-biggest health problem and there is no end in sight
- not just about excessive food and lack of exercise
different ethnic groups are more susceptible to diabetes
-the tendency towards type 2 diabetes if an adaptable advantage
-Adult onset: as it tends to occur mostly in adults frequently is related to obesity disease
of modern life.
-feast of famine environment- meal lasts them all week
Allergies and asthma
-having an allergy is an adaptive advantage
-1819 john bostock had an illness that was exotic in relation to his patients—he had hay
fever. Presented it as a phenomenon. Before 1850 allergies were not heard of.
-5-10% of kids have asthma
-20-25% Americans have an allergy
-allergic response- excessive immune response
Hives-Rash
blisters

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Immune system role: detect and destroy ‘non-self
--create protective proteins called antibodies (specifically targeted against particular
foreign substances)
-antibodies= immunoglobulins
1. Antitoxin Theory: being allergic to cats. Argument- Its not the cat thats the
problem it’s the toxin from the saliva.
2. Too Clean Theory: our immune systems set up to expect
3. Parasite Immunity Theory: normal human condition is to be loaded with parasites,
in order for the IGE system to protect you, it has to be in contact with the parasite.
Immune system protects you from being over-infested.
Cystic Fibrosis
One of the most common life shortening, childhood onset inherited diseases. In
the united states 1in 3900 children are born with CF
oProduces too much mucus and they die in the mucus from not being able
to breath.
Mutations result in thick mucus production in the body’s many ducts (especially
lungs)
1 in 22 people of European descent carry one gene from CF, making it the most
common genetic diseases in these populations
Not exclusive to Europeans – as apparently 1/18 – 1/35 individual in South Africa
are carriers.
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