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ANT 102 Final: Final Exam Study Guide

Course Code
ANT 102
Kyle Smith
Study Guide

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Oldowan (2.5 to 1.2 mya)
Oldest known stone culture dating to the Basal Paleolithic.
Named for olduvai gorge (Tanzania) site – produced the most evidence of this early behavior.
Evidence also comes from remains of australopithecines and homo habilis work by Louis and
Mary Leakey.
Practiced by H.habilis
Relatively simple chopping tools made by striking several flakes off a rounded stone to give it a
rough, cutting edge.
Tools could be used for a variety of purposes.
Were important in expanding the dietary base of early humans.
Nariokotome (1.6 mya)
A nearly complete homo erectus skeleton found in 1984.
85% complete skeleton of a preteen boy.
Around 11-12 years old at the time of death.
oAge estimate depends on the extent to which his growth pattern was similar to that of
living humans.
Initial height estimate of 5’3, but died before he underwent the adolescent growth spurt.
Sometimes labeled as H. Ergaster.
Found in Lake Turkana in Kenya.
Valuable for relating brain size and overall body size in H. Erectus.
Had short arms and long legs, which were a sign of walking.
Acheulean (1.5 mya – 250 kyo)
Stone tool culture that first appears with Homo erectus and early Homo sapiens.
Early and middle Pleistocene.
Characterized by the development of hand axes and other bifacial tools. (Worked on both
Sharper than Oldowan tools.
Had a teardrop shape.
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Dmanisi (1.75 mya)
Located in the Eastern most fringes of Europe (Republic of Georgia) where evidence of H.
erectus was found.
oThis is the furthest west evidence of H. erectus has been found.
o1st possible emigrants out of Africa.
More than 50 human bones found here.
Primitive and Derived features.
All tools represent Oldowan Tool industry.
Supraorbital Torus
Thick bone under eyebrow that provides structural connection between the orbit and the brain
A ridge or lump of bone above the orbits of the eyes.
Gloger’s Rule
Those in tropical areas with more heat have darker skin pigmentation, less hair, and a larger
nasal area that allows for more air to help with cooling.
Physical relationship between climate and melanin production.
More tendency for darker skin to occur in animals near the equator, and lighter farther from it.
Relationship among archaeological remains.
Association of an artifact with things around it.
The subfield of anthropology that focuses on cultural variations in prehistoric and historic
populations by analyzing the culture’s remains.
The study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and
environmental data.
Lake Mungo (60 kya – 40 kya)
First humans with modern anatomy in Australasia.
Tropical body build.
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Would have required boats.
40 N Latitude
The dark pigmentation is not viable above this level. Their skin cannot absorb enough ultraviolet
radiation to maintain the tropical feature of long legs. This results in Rickets.
oDeformation of bones due to lack of vitamin d3 and lack of calcium.
Below 40 degrees North – dark pigmentation is visible, can still absorb enough ultraviolet
Above 40 degrees North – pigmentation is not visible, can’t absorb enough ultraviolet radiation.
Schoningen (400 kya)
The world’s oldest human wooden artifacts – 4 wooden spears.
Located in Germany. At the Heidelberg site.
Shows that they were using many tools that we may not have a lot of evidence about.
Abnormal protrusion of one or both jaws. Under bite/overbite.
Gene linked to hair and skin color.
Not the same gene variant as in humans.
Controls type and density of melanin in the skin.
Used for dating objects up to 60 kyo.
Dating for how long ago they were created by the levels of carbon they still have.
Luang Bua
Site where homo genus and homo floresiensis have been found.
Neander Valley (1856)
Feldhofer Cave, Germany.
Finding place of the first Neanderthal skeleton.
Vindija (32-33 kya)
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