1. What are the different organ, tissue, and cell types that are found in plants? What is
the function of each?
Organs: roots (anchor plant, absorb nutrients), stem (support and transport),
leaves (photosynthetic organ)
Tissues: dermal (epidermis/outside skin), vascular (transport resources, provide
support, xylem and phloem), ground (storage, photosynthesis, support, short distance
Cells: Parenchyma (metabolic functions), Collenchyma (flexible support),
Sclerenchyma (rigid support), Water conducting of Xylem, Sugar conducting of Phloem
2. What are meristems? Where are, they located? What is their function?
Embryonic tissues that allow for indeterminate growth
Apical meristems: located at tips of roots and stems, elongate shoots and roots
Lateral meristems: add thickness to woody plants
3. What is primary and secondary growth? How do they differ from one another? What
tissues are involved in each type of growth?
Primary: elongation (in apical meristems)
Secondary: add thickness (lateral meristem)
Vascular and cork cambium
4. What is the importance of cell division in establishing polarity in plants? What is
asymmetrical cell division and why is it important?
To develop roots and shoots aka certain parts
Signals key event of development (ex: formation of guard cells)
5. What is the ABC hypothesis of flower formation? How is flower formation affected by
the loss of any of the ABC genes?
Identifies how floral organ identity genes direct the formation of the four floral
A = sepal
A + B = petal
B + C = stamen
C = carpel
6. What essential macro- and micro-nutrients are required for plants? How do plants
acquire each of those nutrients? What organs/tissues/cells are involved?
Macro: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
Micro: chlorine, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, boron, molybdenum
7. How do xylem and phloem differ in structure and function?
Xylem: transports water and minerals from roots to shoots
Phloem: transports photosynthetic products from sources to sinks 8. What are the major routes of transport in plants? What nutrients are transported by
Xylem and Phloem. Sugar, photosynthetic products, oxygen, water
9. What are the apoplast and symplast? Why are they important in plants?
Apoplast: everything external of plasma membrane
Symplast: consists of the cytosol of all living cells in a plant
10. How are short- and long-distance transport of nutrients accomplished?
Short: osmosis (water across a membrane)
Long: bulk flow (movement of fluid driven by pressure)
11. What is water potential? Why is it important?
Measurement that combines the effects of solute concentration and pressure
Helps determine direction of water flow
12. Is xylem sap pushed or pulled? Why? How is this accomplished? What is the
importance of adhesion and cohesion in this process?
Pushed. Pressure build up pushes it.
Cohesion: water molecules attracted to each other
Adhesion: water and cellulose attracted to each other
13. What are stomata? Why are they important? Can explain how the associated
guard cells accomplish their function.
Pores of leaves
Allow for water to pass through
Guard cells: close the stomata
14. What is the role of potassium in guard cell function? What is the role of ATP in guard
Helps open and close stomata/guard cells
15. What physical properties determine soil type? How might soil type affect plant
Texture and composition
Can make or break a plant
16. What are the major organic and inorganic components of soil?
soil contains 40-45% inorganic matter, 5% organic matter, 25% water, and 25%
air. To sustain plant life, the proper mix of air, water, minerals, and organic material is