BSC 196 Midterm: BSC 196 Exam 3 Study Guide

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Biological Sciences
BSC 196

1. What are the different organ, tissue, and cell types that are found in plants? What is the function of each? Organs: roots (anchor plant, absorb nutrients), stem (support and transport), leaves (photosynthetic organ) Tissues: dermal (epidermis/outside skin), vascular (transport resources, provide support, xylem and phloem), ground (storage, photosynthesis, support, short distance transport) Cells: Parenchyma (metabolic functions), Collenchyma (flexible support), Sclerenchyma (rigid support), Water conducting of Xylem, Sugar conducting of Phloem 2. What are meristems? Where are, they located? What is their function? Embryonic tissues that allow for indeterminate growth Apical meristems: located at tips of roots and stems, elongate shoots and roots Lateral meristems: add thickness to woody plants 3. What is primary and secondary growth? How do they differ from one another? What tissues are involved in each type of growth? Primary: elongation (in apical meristems) Secondary: add thickness (lateral meristem) Vascular and cork cambium 4. What is the importance of cell division in establishing polarity in plants? What is asymmetrical cell division and why is it important? To develop roots and shoots aka certain parts Signals key event of development (ex: formation of guard cells) 5. What is the ABC hypothesis of flower formation? How is flower formation affected by the loss of any of the ABC genes? Identifies how floral organ identity genes direct the formation of the four floral organs A = sepal A + B = petal B + C = stamen C = carpel 6. What essential macro- and micro-nutrients are required for plants? How do plants acquire each of those nutrients? What organs/tissues/cells are involved? Macro: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, sulfur Micro: chlorine, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, boron, molybdenum 7. How do xylem and phloem differ in structure and function? Xylem: transports water and minerals from roots to shoots Phloem: transports photosynthetic products from sources to sinks 8. What are the major routes of transport in plants? What nutrients are transported by which organs/tissues/cells? Xylem and Phloem. Sugar, photosynthetic products, oxygen, water 9. What are the apoplast and symplast? Why are they important in plants? Apoplast: everything external of plasma membrane Symplast: consists of the cytosol of all living cells in a plant 10. How are short- and long-distance transport of nutrients accomplished? Short: osmosis (water across a membrane) Long: bulk flow (movement of fluid driven by pressure) 11. What is water potential? Why is it important? Measurement that combines the effects of solute concentration and pressure Helps determine direction of water flow 12. Is xylem sap pushed or pulled? Why? How is this accomplished? What is the importance of adhesion and cohesion in this process? Pushed. Pressure build up pushes it. Cohesion: water molecules attracted to each other Adhesion: water and cellulose attracted to each other 13. What are stomata? Why are they important? Can explain how the associated guard cells accomplish their function. Pores of leaves Allow for water to pass through Guard cells: close the stomata 14. What is the role of potassium in guard cell function? What is the role of ATP in guard cell function? Helps open and close stomata/guard cells 15. What physical properties determine soil type? How might soil type affect plant growth? Texture and composition Can make or break a plant 16. What are the major organic and inorganic components of soil? soil contains 40-45% inorganic matter, 5% organic matter, 25% water, and 25% air. To sustain plant life, the proper mix of air, water, minerals, and organic material is req
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