[BSC 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 11 pages long Study Guide!

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7 Feb 2017
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BSC 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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How does inheritance work?
Contrast “blending” and Mendelian models of inheritance
Blending: offspring receives a blend of traits from parents (red and white
make pink)
Discrete (Mendelian): traits are passed on independently - there is no blend -
but not all genes are expressed
Conduct a monohybrid cross to determine probabilities of genotypic and phenotypic
frequencies
Explain Mendel’s 2 laws of inheritance
Law of Segregation: the two alleles for any given gene (or trait) are inherited,
one from each parent; during gamete production, only one of the two alleles
will be present in each ovum or sperm
Law of Independent Assortment: the inheritance of one trait does not affect
the inheritance of other traits
Identify and distinguish the exceptions to Mendelian inheritance
Incomplete Dominance: neither allele is 100% dominant, so the phenotype is
an actual mix/blend
Codominance: more than 2 alleles are dominant together, so they are both
expressed equally (ex: AB blood type)
Polygenic Inheritance: when more than one gene, each of which have several
different alleles, contributes to just one characteristic (ex: eye color
controlled by at least 3 genes, each with at least 2 alleles)
Pleiotropy: when one gene causes several different phenotypes (ex: Marfan’s
Syndrome - Abe Lincoln - very tall)
Distinguish genetic and epigenetic inheritance
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Epigenetic inheritance: genetic information passes from generation to
generation - tags passed along, sequence stays the same
What role can biotechnology play in our lives?
Describe DNA structure
Your complete set of DNA is anywhere on your cells and in every cell of your
body
Double helix, unrolled looks like a ladder
Thymine pairs with adenine, guanine pairs with cytosine
Explain “the central dogma”
DNA RNA Protein
Transcription: copying of DNA code to RNA, one nucleotide at a time so it is
complementary to the DNA
Translation: RNA gets translated into protein - every 3 RNA bases codes for
an amino acid
Explain the implications of the genetic code being universal, regarding both
evolutionary theory and biotechnology
The genetic code is universal because all living organisms ever discovered
use the same code - evidence for why all life shares a common evolutionary
ancestor
Codon: a 3 letter “word” that codes for an amino acid
There are 64 codons to code for approximately 20 amino acids
Explain the general process of gene expression
Gene expression: the process of turning on a gene to produce RNA and a
protein
All cells have the same complete genome - each cell controls which genes in
the genome are expressed and when
Just because a cell has a particular gene, does NOT mean it is transcribed into
RNA then translated into a protein
Skin cells don’t express genomes for the liver
Describe in general what can be done with the following biotech tools: gel
electrophoresis, PCR, molecular and reproductive cloning
Gel electrophoresis: separates DNA strands based on length (used in
forensics, paternity tests)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): takes a few copies of DNA and makes
millions of copies (because small samples are insufficient for study)
Molecular cloning: short stretches of DNA are cloned so they can be further
studied (ex: growing bacterial colonies)
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