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BSC 196 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Guppy, Zygote, Genotype Frequency

Biological Sciences
Course Code
BSC 196
Study Guide

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Nature of the Exam
The exam will consist of 40 multiple choice questions. There will be a few calculations related to
the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, so it would be desirable (but not essential) to bring a
calculator. Cell phones must be turned off and stored safely away during the exam.
Study Questions
1. What is evolution? What are the four principal requirements of evolution by natural selection?
2. How did John Endler test the hypothesis that color patterns in guppies represent a trade-off
between selection to avoid predation and selection to attract a mate?
3. Why is natural selection not simply a matter of chance? What is an adaptation?
4. What kinds of testable predictions can be derived from the theory of evolution as it applies to
the fossil record? How do direct observations of natural populations provide evidence of change
over time?
5. What is a homology? What kinds of testable predictions can be derived from the theory of
evolution as they apply to homologies at all levels of biological organization: structural,
embryonic, cellular and molecular?
6. How do changes observed in the beak morphology of medium ground finches over the last 20
years conform to the criteria for evolution by natural selection?
7. What does heritability measure? Can natural selection alter the evolution of a trait that has a
heritability of zero?
8. How is genetic variation created? What are the major kinds of mutations, and how do they
alter DNA sequences? Do mutations arise by chance or nonrandomly? Are most mutations
harmful or beneficial?
9. Review the Hardy-Weinberg theorem. If you were given a set of genotype frequencies, how
would you determine the relative allele frequencies? If you were given allele frequencies, how
would you determine expected genotype frequencies at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
10. What is genetic drift? What consequences does genetic drift have for genetic variation? Can
genetic drift lead to adaptation? What effect does population size have on genetic drift?
11. What are the three primary evolutionary forces factors that can take a population out of
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
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