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BSC 196 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Deuterostome, Cambrian Explosion, Ecdysozoa


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BSC 196
Professor
Rachel Bowden
Study Guide
Midterm

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BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (BSC 196) STUDY GUIDE FOR TEST 2 (Dr. Bowden)
Nature of the Exam
The exam will consist of 40 multiple choice questions.
Cell phones must be turned off and stored safely away during the exam.
Study Questions
1. What are phylogenies? How are they constructed? Which types of characters are
used in constructing phylogenies and why?
2. What are monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groupings? More important
than knowing the definition of each be able to recognize each when you see
them in a phylogenetic tree.
3. What is horizontal and vertical gene transfer? How do they affect our understanding
of phylogenetic relationships? Be able to give specific examples.
4. What is the Linnean classification scheme? How do we currently organize (or
classify) organisms using this method?
5. What are the defining features of the prokaryotes? What characteristics unite the
bacteria and archea? What characteristics allow you to differentiate between them?
What characteristics indicate that bacteria and archea are distinctly different
domains? What is an extremeophile? Know the phylogenetic relationships among
the three domains of life (and, of course, know what those three domains are).
6. What are the major cell-surface structures in prokaryotes and what are their
functions?
7. What are the processes of transformation, transduction, conjugation? How can they
lead to genetic variation? Are there other processes that can lead to variation in
prokaryotes?
8. Review the diverse mechanisms by which prokaryotes can obtain energy, undergo
cellular respiration (metabolism), and metabolize nitrogen. Keep in mind that many of
these concepts apply beyond the prokaryotes!
9. What are the defining features of eukaryotes? What traits are similar between archea
and eukarya?
10. What is endosymbiosis as it pertains to the eukaryotic cell? What groups have
participated in this process/been formed as a result of this process? Distinguish
between primary and secondary endosymbiosis. Be able to give examples.
11. Why are protists thought to be important ecologically? In what environments are they
particularly important? Be able to give examples.
12. What benefits and problems did plants experience when they moved onto land?
What characteristics allowed plants to be successful on land?
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