[BSC 219] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 37 pages long Study Guide!

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BSC 219
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Tuesday, January 17, 2017
1
DNA Structure (DNA, Chromosome structure and
Replication)
Cell Structure
- DNA located in nucleus
- RNA located in cytoplasm of ribosome and in nucleus
- Proteins found all over the cell
Structure of DNA
- DNA is made of:
- 1. Four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine
- 2. 5-carbon sugar groups
- 3. Phosphate back bone
Nitrogenous Bases
- Ring numbering pyrimidines --> start with Nitrogen at the bottom then count
counterclockwise
- Pyrimidines: have one ring (Cytosine and Thymine)
- Purines: have two rings (adenine and Guanine)
- Ring numbering purines --> start with nitrogen on the top right and count clockwise for
the bid ring
Then start with top N of the small ring and count counterclockwise
5-Carbon Sugars
- DNA contains the 5-carbon sugar deoxyribose (aka 2-deoxyribose)
- Each carbon is assigned a number (1' to 5')
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Tuesday, January 17, 2017
2
- For pyrimidines N1 binds to the C1 carbon of sugar
- For purines N9 binds to C1 carbon of the sugar
Phosphate Groups
- Nucleoside: the nitrogenous base and 5-carbon sugar
- The phosphate group is bound to the 5' carbon of deoxyribose
- Nucleotides can have one, two or three phosphate groups
- Nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) --> 1 phosphate group
- Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) --> 2 phosphate group
- Nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) --> 3 phosphate group
- Nucleotides --> the nitrogenous base, 5-carbon sugar and phosphate group
Building blocks of DNA
- Phosphodiester bonds: links nucleotides together --> forms between he -OH group
at the C-3' position and the phosphate group at the C-5' position
Structure of DNA
- The phosphodiester
- Each strand of DNA has a 5' end and a 3' end
- The 5' end is the "beginning" of the DNA molecule
- The 3' end is id "end" of the DNA molecule
- Two strands come together to form double stranded DNA through the binding of
complementary bases
- The two strands are antiparallel: the 5' to 3'' ends of each strand are attached
- Two strands are complementary: the bases of one strand can be determined from
bases of the other
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