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Study Guide

BSC 283- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 22 pages long!)


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BSC 283
Professor
Wolfgang Stein
Study Guide
Midterm

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ISU
BSC 283
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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What is physiology?
o “study of normal functioning of a living organism and its
component parts including all its chemical and physical processes
o “study of the function of organisms as integrated systems of
molecules, cells, tissues, and organs”
Organizational levels of biology
o Chemistry-Molecular Bio-Cell Bio-Physiology-Ecology
Organ systems in human body
o 10 systems
o Circulatory, digestive, endocrine, immune, nervous,
muscular/skeletal, reproductive, respiratory, urinary,
integumentary
o Digestive system has a lot of immunity bc you take in things and it
must be protected
o Integumentary (skin) is important barrier
Physiology links function and process
o Function explains the “why” (“what”)
Teleological approach
o Process or mechanism describes the “how”
Mechanistic approach
o Red blood cells
Themes in physiology
o Structure and function are closely related
Molecular interactions
Compartmentation
o Living organisms need energy
o Information flow coordinated body function
o Homeostasis maintains internal stability
Homeostasis
o Homeo- similar; stasis- condition
o Maintenance of a “stable” internal environment
o “Homeodynamics”: people have different homeostasis levels
o Supports optimal functioning in external world
o EXAMPLE: external is changing while the internal is kept stable
throughout the external changes
Internal and External Environments
o Homeostasis is necessary bc the body is an open system with a
harsh external environment
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o Material and energy enters and leaves the body- there is risk that
the external will change the internal
Dynamic steady states maintain homeostasis in internal compartments
o Material is exchanged between compartments (dynamic), but intra-
compartment transport maintains steady state
o Materials move to create a stable state
o Sodium on the outside and potassium on the inside
Steady state maintains homeostasis: Law of Mass Balance
o If the amount of substance in the body is to remain stable, then a
gain must offset the loss
o Mass balance= existing body load + intake/production
excretion/removal
Steady state vs equilibrium: Stability
o SS: with dissimilar composition between compartments
maintained by ENERGY input. (NOT EQUAL BUT STABLE DUE TO
ENERGY INPUT)
o Equilibrium: with similar composition between compartments that
results in no driving forces
Conformer vs Regulator
o Homeostasis has limits
o Humans are regulators (can regulate their own internal
environment)
Zone of stability where homeostasis is maintained
o EXAMPLE: Mummichog
Member of killifish family
Tolerates range of salinities
Preferred salinity? Wants to be in salinity where it doesn’t
have to expend much energy. Brackish water (middle
between salt and fresh)
Control systems and homeostasis
o Regulated variables are kept within normal range by control
mechanisms
Keeps near set point or optimal value
Control systems
Input signal-integrating system
o Local and Reflex (example is blood pressure)
Muscle: local (while working out)
Whole body: reflex (standing up)
Negative and Positive feedback
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