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COM 110 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stephen Toulmin, Ethnocentrism, False Dilemma

Course Code
COM 110
Jenifer Milligan
Study Guide

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COM 110 Final Study Guide
What is an Argument?
Argument - the process of advancing claims supported by evidence and reasoning.
Ethos - Speaker credibility; refes to the audiee’s peeptio of the speake’s ediility.
Iludes the speake’s opetee, haate, ad goodill.
Pathos - Emotional appeal; refers to the appeals of emotion. Persuasive speakers target a
number of emotions in their audiences.
Logos - The logical appeal; relies on evidence and reasoning. Refers to rational proof you use to
support the arguments you make in the persuasive speech.
Group Definitions
Groupthink - When the members of the group are more concerned with getting the project
done and not necessarily getting it done right.
Group Synergy - When the whole group in more successful than each member within the group.
Claims (ch.16)
Fact - When speakers address claims of fact, they are concerned with what is or is not true, what
does or does not exist, what did or did not happen.
o Organizations of Speech: topical, spatial, or chronological
o Burden of Proof: speakers working with a factual persuasive claim faces the burden of
proving that the facts support her or his position (it is essential that the speaker clearly
define key terms).
Value - concerns what you might consider to be right or wrong, moral or immoral, just or unjust,
or good or bad.
o Organizations of Speech: topical
o Burden of Proof: speakers advocating value claims also must clearly define key terms
and identify some criterion, or standard, by which the value judgment is to be made
(the criterion is the measuring stick by which the value judgment is made)
Policy - concern what should be done, what law should be changed, or what policy should be
o Organizations of Speech: problem-solution, problem-cause-solution, comparative
adatage, ad Mooe’s otiated seuee.
o Burden of Proof: speakers advocating a policy must clearly define key terms, prove that
some problem or harm exists, poe that the status uo o’t o a’t sole the
problem, and establish that her/his recommended course of action will solve the
o Agent of Action: the entity that is responsible for taking action.
Organizations of Speech
Problem-Solution - advocating a change in policy,
Problem-Cause-Solution - focus on specific causes associated with a problem,
Comparative Advantage - your audience already agrees that a problem exists in the status quo,
organize your speech around the advantages and disadvantages of at least two competing
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