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Midterm

GEO 102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Capillary Fringe, Silt, Monocline


Department
Geography/Geology
Course Code
GEO 102
Professor
Wondwosen Seyoum
Study Guide
Midterm

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Structural Geology - Faults
Stress the force acting on a surface.
Strain deformation resulting from stress.
Deformation change in shape or volume of a rock in response to stress.
Stresses
Uniform Compressional, same in all directions
Differential applied force is greater in one direction. For faults or folds to occur, the stress must be differential.
Compressional, pushing together
Tensional, pulling apart
Shear, acts parallel to a surface
Deformation
1. Elastic nonpermanent, rock returns to original shape
Elastic limit the point beyond which permanent deformation occurs.
2. Ductile permanent change in the shape by bending or flowing
3. Brittle permanent change in the shape when the material fractures or cracks.
Factors affecting deformation
1. Temperature as the temperature increases, materials become more ductile.
2. Confining pressure as pressure increases (weight if overlying rock), materials become more ductile.
3. Rate of deformation if stress is applied rapidly, rocks will tend to be brittle.
4. Composition of the rock at the same temperature and pressure, some rocks will be more brittle than others.
Strike the orientation of a line of intersection between a rock layer and a horizontal plane.
Dip the angle between a tilted surface and a horizontal plane.
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