KNR 225 Exam 3 Study guide.docx

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Kinesiology and Recreation
KNR 225

Chapter 10Childhood GrowthDevelopmentKey TermsChronic Malnutrition severe and prolonged undernourishment that may result in growth retardation in young children and a variety of nutritionrelated conditions rickets scurvyGrowth Retardation a condition when a childs height fails to fall within the growth norms for his or her age levelHypertrophy increase in the size of muscle fibersAtrophy a decrease in the size of muscle fibersEndomorphic classifications of physique that represents soft and rounded physical featuresMesomorphic classifications of physique with physical features such as wellmuscled broad shoulders narrow waist and thick chestEctomorphic classifications of physique characterized by a tall thin lean appearanceConsequence of growth plate injuries effects bone growth and over use may result in epiphyseal injuries and growth plate injuryGrowth versus Development Growth an increase in the size of the body or its parts Development changes in an individuals level of functioning over time5 factors that affect growthdevelopment1 Nutrition most important factor to influence physical development during the prenatal period First 4 yrs of malnutrition can have permanent lags Growth retardation childs height fails to fall within the growth norms for age level Chronic Malnutrition severe undernourishment that may result in growth retardation in young children2 ExerciseInjury Hypertrophy and atrophy Exercise increases bone width and promotes bone mineralization which make for stronger less brittle bones Exercise to the extreme can cause bone injury resulting in heightweight decrease growth plate injuries3 Physical Activity activity promotes muscle development Activity generally has positive effects on the growth of children Negative effects occur if activity is carried to the extreme 4 illness and climate standard childhood illness does not effect the growth of children The illness effect is based on duration severity and timing Interaction of malnutrition and illness Impossible to demonstrate a direct causal relationship between climate and physical growth
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