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NUR 327 Study Guide - Cella, Vasodilation

Mennonite College of Nursing
Course Code
NUR 327

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Exam 5 Study Guide:
Clinical Manifestations of Inflammation- changes include
vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and leukocytic
cellular inflammation. As these changed take place five cardinal
signs of inflammation are produced: redness, heat, swelling,
pain, and loss of function. There is vasoconstriction at first
followed by vasodilation. Loss of function is most likely related
to the pain and swelling. RBCs, WBCs, and platelets remain in the
blood and make it viscous. Body responses: local effects-
erythema, warmth, edema, pain, impaired functioning. Systemic
effects- fever, leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, sepsis.
Increased temperature - is the result of an increase in blood flow to the injured area due to damaged blood
vessels and the need to supply the area with an increased number of white blood cells. Much as the body
develops a generalized fever when ill, an injury to a soft tissue of the body causes a “local fever.” This is why
heat, hot packs or hot soaks are not used on a new injury. Why turn up the heat under a boiling kettle?
Redness- is due to the increase in blood flow to the area
Swelling- also is due to the increase in blood flow to the area. Additionally, damage to the cells, small
capillaries and lymphatic vessels in the area may allow the leaking of some fluid.
Pain- is often due to pressure on nerve endings from increased swelling.
Loss of function- is caused by swelling in the area and “guarding” of the muscles surrounding the injury.
This also produces an increase in pain.
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