PHI 202 Final: Exam 3 Terms

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Illinois State University
PHI 202

PHI 202- Exam 3 Terms 1. Biological Determinism a. Humans are not unique in the world b. The same processes that explain behavior in other mammals explains human behavior c. There is an underlying commonality to human nature despite cultural differences d. The theory that explains behavior and “psychology” in all living things is evolution i. Homology 1. All living organisms share a common ancestry. ii. Natural Selection 1. The mechanism for evolutionary change 2. Social Constructionism a. Humans are unique b. The complexity of human culture requires “special” explanations for human psychology and behavior. c. There is no common “human nature”, just similarities and differences between cultures. 3. Natural Kinds a. Categories that exist in the world, independently of human perception, understanding, or judgement. b. Defined by essential properties i. Necessary and sufficient. 4. Heuristic Categories a. Categories that exist in human experience of the world. b. A product of human perception c. Created to serve a purpose d. Defined by Orthogonal Properties i. Overlapping or “non-discrete” e. Statistical or Stipulative f. Properties cannot be necessary or sufficient because they are orthogonal and not discrete (not all or nothing) 5. Orthogonal Characters or Traits a. Overlapping, non-discrete characters or traits 6. Necessary/Sufficient Characters or Traits a. Necessary: i. This trait must be present to be considered a kind, but possessing this trait does not make you that kind. ii. Presence is not what seems to matter; the genetic disposition is what makes the necessary condition sufficient iii. b. Sufficient: i. A property that by itself categorizes. 7. Differential Parental Investment (DPI) a. Simple anatomical differences between males and females make the production of offspring more EXPENSIVE (bigger investment) for females than for males 8. Male Parental Investment (MPI) a. Mental modules that wire females to select high-quality men b. Choosiness c. Males are inclined to have a large quantity of offspring. d. Females are inclined to have high quality offspring, rather than quantity. i. Females rear the children 9. Environment of Evolutionary Adaptation (EEA) a. Primarily 1-2,000,000 years ago b. Includes the entire evolutionary history of our lineage c. Hunter-Gatherer d. Family Based communities i. Probable issues avoiding incest and inbreeding e. Basic anatomical and physiological differences between males and females f. Humans in the EEA were anatomically very similar to modern humans g. Mental modules led to the reproductive success of our ancestors in the EEA h. Not real time/place, but a set of problems or challenges faced by our ancestors i. Successful modules became very common through Natural Selection 10. Cuckoldry 11. Bilateral Symmetry 12. Sexual Selection a. The fact that some males have traits that make them more attractive to females and that females are more likely to mate with males that carry these traits in a special form of Natural Selection. 13. Natural Selection a. The mechanism for evolutionary change i. Organisms change over long periods of time (generational time) ii. Results in differences between groups of organisms 1. Differences in the reproductive success of individuals based on differences in their phenotype a. “Fitness” iii. The set of traits (both anatomical and psychological traits), that define a particular group of organisms iv. 3 components of natural selection 1. Phenotypic Variation a. Differences in genetics 2. Heritability a. Offspring have to resemble their parents 3. Differences in probable reproductive success a. “fitness” b. “Survival of the fittest” i. how long and well your traits survive 14. Gender a. Classification of organisms in terms of sex-typical psychological features i. i.e., behaviors, dispositions to behaviors, attitudes and desires. b. Categories of “sex-typical” psychological and behavioral features i. Feminine- female-typical ii. Masculine- Male-typical 15. Sexuality a. Psychology and behavior i. Subset of gender 1. Includes sexual behaviors, dispositions to sexual behaviors, sexual attitudes and sexual desires b. Sexual desire: i. Born without any sexuality/sexual psychology (Blank Slates) 1. Learn to internalize stereotype a. Heteronormativity i. Cultural institutions and systems serve to reinforce the hegemony of heterosexuality (or a particular kind) c. SC: Our CSL allows us to see different types of sexualities i. Sexuality is culturally constructed. d. BD: sexuality is a product of genetics and other biological features. i. Evolution could preserve that process across generations 16. Sex a. Category of reproductive capacity i. Female-egg producers ii. Male-Sperm providers b. Binary and complimentary 17. Self-fulfilling Prophecy a. We practice what we aspire to be b. We become what we practice being c. A product of the CSL d. Expectations about people influence the way individuals are treated and their response to this treatment may confirm or deny the initial expectation e. Expectations and ideas can influence people to conform to their stereotypes 18. Mental Modules a. The proximate cause of all human psychology is the human brain/mind b. Physiological and psychological responses c. Selected as a solution to a problem faced by our ancestors in the EEA i. The ultimate cause of human psychology is natural selection ii. Successive Mental modules are adaptations resulted from Natural Selection d. BD: i. The mind is made up of a set of individual mental modules 1. These modules are heritable 2. These modules led to the reproductive success of our ancestors in the EEA 19. Sexual Division of Labor a. There are tasks associated with males and tasks associated with females b. A product of our CSL c. Uses gender categories to divide work and/or personality traits d. Serves to make two genders dependent on one another for survival e. Ensures family unit consists of a male and a female who will then produce children 20. Sexual Dimorphism a. Sex is divided into two categories: masculine and feminine b. Sex is binary and complimentary c. Sexuality is gendered i. Sexual desire is constructed into us by SFP based on CSL 21. Patriarchy a. Hegemonic heteronormativity enforces a patriarchal society b. A pattern of social organization in which things associated with men have a higher status than things associated with women. 22. Common Sense Lens a. A “gendered” framework for understanding/interacting with ourselves and others b. Is a product of our social organization in respect to the SDL and S/GS c. The culture’s S/GS is internalized through the self-fulfilling prophecy i. Recognizes different ways for people to be 1. A conceptual framework for understanding, interacting, and predicting the behavior of other people and yourself. d. CSL is then used by SFP to construct the next generation of the culture. e. Contains multiple sexual categories f. Culturally variable 23. Sex and Gender Markers a. Sex markers: Physiological traits i. Female: Egg-producer ii. Male- Sperm-producer b. Gender markers: Psychological and behavioral traits i. Female-Care taker ii. Male- Protector 24. Sexual and Emotional Jealousy a. Males: Jealous of sexual infidelity b. Females: Jealous of emotional infidelity 25. Masculine/Feminine a. Masculine: male-typical psychological and behavioral features b. Feminine: Female-typical psychological and behavioral features 26. Heteronormativity a. Hegemony: the result in which the dominant culture maintains its dominance by excluding all other options as “unnatural” b. Capitalism th i. 19 century: Market economy 1. Goal was to maximize productivity 2. Discipline=Productivity 3. Society valued self-control and avoided non-productive acts a. Normative Purpose of sex was reproduction ii. 20th Century: Consumer Capitalism (corporate) 1. Goal was to maximize consumption 2. Sexuality became a commodity and a marketing strategy 3. Normative Sexuality became more widespread; not only for reproduction c. Freud i. Normative Human Sexuality: Genital-centered, intercourse-orientated, heterosexuality based on love and monogamy ii. Sex is driven by pleasure 1. Causes conflict with society and must be “managed” iii. Normal sexual behavior includes a wide range of pleasure inducing behaviors, but cannot be substituted for heterosexual intercourse. d. Sexology i. Sex as a scientific study ii. Sexuality is a part of the inborn biological and genetic make-up of all individuals iii. Sexuality is a core part of what it means to be human 1. Sexuality is a basic need iv. Sexuality is the driving force behind most human behavior 1. Sex drive is essentially reproductive v. Humans are “by nature” heterosexual 27. Sex/Gender Schema a. Binary and complimentary b. Internalized through the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy c. Sexuality is a part of gender d. Sexual desire is built into our S/GS 28. Emotions (According to BD) a. Emotions are mental modules – “hardwires” mental reflexes b. Some emotions get us to act in was that are “helpful” to us c. Some emotion gets us to avoid acting in ways that are harmful to us 29. Sexual Agency a. Men are sexual agents b. Women are objects of that agency c. Sexual double standard 30. Natural (All 3 Meanings) a. Biological Determinist i. Process of natural selection, genetics and biology b. Social Constructivism i. Within our expectations; CSL c. Normative i. Correct, appropriate, or moral 31. Kinsey Test/Kinsey Number a. Attraction, fantasy and arousal can be measured b. Purpose: to measure patterns of arousal and desires c. Kinsey test- self-report paper/pencil test i. Kinsey Numbers 1. Scale from exclusive heterosexuality (0) to exclusive homosexuality (6) 2. Different pattern of distribution for males and females a. Males who initially report as 0 or 6 numbers do not change i. Fluctuation in 1-5 b. Females usually report 1-5 i. Numbers do not change d. Plethysmography i. Physiological test of genital arousal 1. Blood fluctuations in genitals 32. INAH3/ Hypothalamus a. Sexually dimorphic area of the brain b. Hypothalamus: Mental module for sexual desire c. INAH3: Locus of sexual desire i. 3x larger in males than females ii. 3x larger in heterosexual males than homosexual males iii. Approximately the same size in homosexual males and females iv. Androphilic brains are similar d. LeVay Brain Study i. Human brains are sexually dimorphic ii. Male brains are anatomically and functionally different from female brains iii. Kinsey numbers (result determined by LeVay) reflect brain structures (mental modules) 1. Look for regions of the brain that show Kinsey 6 (homosexuality) 33. Sexual Orientation a. A stable pattern of directed sexual attraction. b. Who/what you are emotionally attracted to c. Who/what you are sexually aroused by d. Patterns of physiological arousal e. Bodily response to erotic stimuli f. BD: Sexual orientation is a biological factor g. SC: Sexual orientation varies and is existent through the CSL. 34. Sexual Identity a. Most likely where you begin. b. How others understand or label you with respect to the sexual aspects of your life i. How you see/ understand yourself c. The product of the CSL that exists within your culture d. Can change over time i. Born blank slate ii. Growth and development iii. Sexuality develops iv. Different CSL’s can change a person’s sexual identity v. Sexual behaviors and desires will follow form and usually will be consistent with your sexual identity 35. Sexual Behavior a. Sexual activity you engage in b. Usually consistent with your sexual identity i. People engage in sexual acts that are inconsistent with their identity ii. Behavior does not equal identity 36. X-Linked Trait a. Family Studies (Hamer) i. Nuclear families containing Gay men with gay uncles on their mother’s
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