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PSY 110 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Endorphins, Heart Valve, Neuroglia

Course Code
PSY 110
Study Guide

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PSY 110 Exam 1 Study Guide
Important Terms:
Psychology - Study of behavior and mental processes
Structuralism - a method of interpretation and analysis of aspects of human cognition,
behavior, culture, and experience.
Functionalism - the theory that mental states can be sufficiently defined by their cause, their
effect on other mental states, and their effect on behavior.
Natural Selection Evolutionary perspective; "fittest" members of society live longer.
Psychoanalysis - Therapeutic approach where the therapist and the patient work together to
bring the contents of the patient's unconscious into the patient's conscious awareness.
Gestalt Theory find out how people experience sensory input; in opposition to structuralism
Behaviorism investigates the observable environmental effects on behavior
Cognitive Psychology Study of mental processes; memory, thinking, decision-making
Social Psychology Study of how people are affected by their social environment and
interpersonal relationships.
Culture made up of beliefs, values, rules, norms, and customs that people learn from one
another when they share a common language or environment.
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) - guardians of the ethical guidelines when research is
conducted; they review all proposed research to ensure that it meets scientific standards.
Scientific Method requires that psychologists follow several carefully planned, systematic
steps; the processes must be objective (free from bias); the procedures must be reproducible.
Theory used to generate plausible answers
Hypothesis a testable prediction
Observational Studies systematically assess and code observable behavior
Self-Reports reports based on the person who is conducting the experiment
Case Studies studies of one or a few cases in depth
Correlation Methods examine the relationship between two factors; enable researchers to
examine how one factor is related to another factor.
Experimental Methods - to determine whether one factor causes the other factor
Independent Variable the variable that the experimenter manipulates to examine its impact
on the dependent variable.

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Dependent Variable the variable that is affected by the independent variable.
Control Group a comparison group that receives no intervention or receives an intervention
that is unrelated to the independent variable.
Experimental Group a group that receives intervention of the independent variable.
Random Assignment placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in a
way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent
Random Sample sample that fairly represents the population.
Nervous System network of billions of cells in the brain and the body responsible for all
aspects of what we feel, think, and do.
Central Nervous System part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal
Peripheral Nervous System part of the nervous system that enables nerves to connect the
central nervous system with the muscles, organs, and glands.
Neurons basic units of the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit
information in the nervous system.
Dendrites Branchlike extensions of the neuron with receptors that detect information from
other neurons.
Cell Body part of the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is
collected and integrated.
Axon long, narrow, outgrowth of neuron that enables the neuron to transmit information to
other neurons.
Synapse site where communication occurs between neurons through neurotransmitters.
Action Potential the neural impulse that travels along the axon and then causes the release
of neurotransmitters into the synapse.
Neurotransmitters chemical substances that carry signals from one neuron to another.
Cerebellum Part of the hindbrain; in charge of motor learning, coordination, and balance.
Thalamus Part of the forebrain (subcortical structures); in charge of sensory information
(except smell).
Hypothalamus Part of the forebrain (subcortical structures); in charge of regulation of body
functions and motivation.
Hippocampus - Part of the forebrain (subcortical structures); in charge of formation of new

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Amygdala - Part of the forebrain (subcortical structures); in charge of association of emotions
with experiences.
Occipital Lobes Part of the forebrain (cortical structures); in charge of vision
Parietal Lobes - Part of the forebrain (cortical structures); in charge of touch and spatial
Temporal Lobes - Part of the forebrain (cortical structures); in charge of hearing and memory.
Frontal Lobes - Part of the forebrain (cortical structures); in charge of planning, movement,
and complex thought.
Somatic Nervous System transmits signals to and from the central nervous system through
nerves to initiate or inhibit movement.
Autonomic Nervous System automatically regulates the body's internal environment.
Sympathetic Nervous System - part of the autonomic nervous system; prepares body for
Parasympathetic Nervous System part of the autonomic nervous system; returns body to a
resting state.
Endocrine System a communication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts and
Hormones Chemical substances released from endocrine glands that travel through the
bloodstream to targeted tissues. The tissues are later influenced by the hormones.
Genes the units of heredity which partially determine an organism's characteristics.
Monozygotic Twins Identical twins
Dizygotic Twins Fraternal twins
Plasticity property of the brain that causes it to change through experience, drugs, or injury.
Chapter 1
Be able to contrast the major schools of thought (structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalytic theory,
Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, cognitive psychology, social psychology) and understand basically
how current psychology was influenced by these approaches to understanding human behavior. The
information in Table 1.1 will help you understand the differences between these schools of thought.
In section 1.3 (Who are Psychologists Today?), you should be familiar with the four levels of analysis
from which psychologists study behavior and mental processes. What are the four levels? Be able to
give an example of what a researcher would study if s/he were using each of the levels of analysis.
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