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PSY 110 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Teddy Bear, Outlet Store, Animism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 110
Professor
Nauta
Study Guide
Quiz

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PSY 110 Exam 3 Study Guide
Germinal Period the period in prenatal development from conception to two weeks after conception
when the zygote divides rapidly and implants the uterine wall
Embryonic Period the period in prenatal development from 2 to 8 weeks after conception, when the
brain, spine, major organs, and bodily structures begin to form in the embryo
Fetal Period the period in prenatal development from 8 weeks after conception until birth, when the
brain continues developing, bodily structures are refined, and the fetus grows in length and weight and
accumulates fat in preparation for birth
Teratogens environmental substances that can harm prenatal development
Maturation physical development of the brain and body that prepares an infant for voluntary
movement, such as rolling over, sitting, and walking
Secure Attachment the attachment style for most infants, who are confident enough to play in an
unfamiliar environment as long as the caregiver is present and are readily comforted by the caregiver
during times of distress
Avoidant Attachment the attachment style for infants who are somewhat willing to explore an
unfamiliar environment, but do not look at the caregiver when the caregiver leaves or returns, as
though they have little interest in the caregiver
Ambivalent Attachment the attachment style for infants who are unwilling to explore an unfamiliar
environment but seem to have mixed feelings about the caregiver; they cry when the caregiver leaves
the room, but they cannot be consoled by the caregiver upon the caregiver's return
Assimilation the process we use to incorporate new information into existing schemas (mental
representation)
Accommodation the process we use to create new schemas (mental representations) or drastically
alter existing ones to incorporate new information that otherwise would not fit
Sensorimotor Stage first stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development; during this stage, infants
acquire information about the world through their senses and motor skills
Preoperational Stage the second stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development; during this stage,
children think symbolically about objects, but they reason based on intuition and superficial
appearances rather than logic
Concrete Operational Stage the third stage in Piaget's theory of cognitive development; during this
stage, children begin to think about and understand logical operations, and they are no longer fooled by
appearances
Formal Operational Stage the fourth and final stage of Piaget's theory of cognitive development;
during this stage, people can think abstractly, and they can formulate and test hypotheses through logic
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Object Permanence the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it is hidden from
view
Law of Conservation if the appearance of a substance changes in one dimension, the properties of that
substance remain unchanged
Centration the limitation of not being able to think about more than one aspect of a problem at a time
Egocentrism viewing the world through only their own experiences
Puberty the physical changes in the body that are a part of sexual development
Preconventional Level earliest level of moral development; at this level, self-interest and event
outcomes determine what is moral
Conventional Level middle level of moral development; at this level, strict adherence to societal laws
and the approval of others determine what is moral
Postconventional Level highest level of moral development; at this level, decisions about morality
depend on abstract principles and the value of all life
Dementia severe impairment intellectual capacity and personality, often due to damage to the brain
Personal (Internal) Attributions people's explanations for why events or actions occur that refer to
people's internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, or efforts
Situational (Eternal) Attributions people's explanations for why events or actions occur that refer to
external events, such as weather, luck, accidents, or other people's actions
Fundamental Attribution Error in explaining other people's behavior, the tendency to overemphasize
personality traits and underemphasize personality traits and underestimate situational factors
Actor/Observer Bias when interpreting our own behavior, we tend to focus on situations. When
interpreting other people's behavior, we tend to focus on personal attributes
Prejudice negative feelings, opinions, and beliefs associated with a stereotype
Discrimination the inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people based on the group they belong
to
Attitudes people's evaluations of objects, of events, or of ideas
Mere Exposure Effect the increase in liking due to repeated exposure
Cognitive Dissonance an uncomfortable mental state due to a contradiction between two attitudes or
between and attitude and a behavior
Persuasion the active and conscious effort to change an attitude through the transmission of a
message
Central Route - method of persuasion that uses high elaboration; where people pay attention to the
arguments and consider all the information in the message; this method usually results in development
of stronger attitudes
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Peripheral Route a method of persuasion that uses low elaboration, where people minimally process
the message; this method usually results in development of weaker attitudes
Social Facilitation when the mere presence of others enhances performance
Social Loafing the tendency for people to work less hard in a group than when working alone
Deindividuation a state of reduced individuality, reduced self-awareness, and reduced attention to
personal standards; this phenomenon may occur when people are part of a group
Groupthink when members of the group are more concerned with getting the job done than doing it
correctly
Conformity the altering of your own behaviors and opinions to match those of other people or to
match other people's expectations
Social Norms expected standards of conduct, which influence behavior
Compliance the tendency to agree to do things requested by others
Obedience factors that influence people to follow the orders given by an authority
Aggression any behavior that involves the intention to harm someone else
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis the more frustrated we feel, the more likely we are to act
aggressively
Prosocial acting in ways that tend to benefit others
Bystander Apathy the failure to offer help to people in need
Passionate Love a type of romantic relationship that includes intense longing and sexual desire
Companionate Love a type of romantic relationship that includes a strong commitment to supporting
and caring for a partner
Practice Questions
1. Jenny is a 2-month old infant. Which milestone is she likely to acquire first if she develops physically
like most children?
(a) roll over, (b) sit with or without support, (c) pull herself to a standing position, (d) walk without help
2. 18-month-old “a ries ad protests he his father drops hi off at a e aysitter’s house.
When his father returns, however, Sam is greatly comforted and immediately runs up to hug him. It
appears that Sam is ___ attached to his father.
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