PSY 233 Final: PSY 233 Exam 3 Study Guide

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Illinois State University
PSY 233
Eros Desouza

PSY 233 Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 9- Skinner 1. What are the basic assumptions regarding behavior? a. Behavior is Lawful b. Behavior can be predicted c. Behavior can be controlled d. What is radical behaviorism? i. Only directly observable events, such as stimuli and responses, should constitute the subject matter of psychology. Reference to all internal events can be, and should be, avoided. e. What is functional analysis of behavior? i. Measurable Experiences (causes) and Measurable behavior (effect) 2. What are the principles of classical (type S) conditioning, and what are the principles of operant (type R) conditioning? a. Classical Conditioning: i. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): 1. Something that requires no learning to trigger a response. ii. Unconditioned Response (UCR): 1. Non-learned response that occurs naturally iii. Neutral Stimulus (NS): 1. Stimulus that is Neutral iv. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): 1. Previously neutral stimulus, after becoming associated with the UCS, triggers a conditioned response. v. Conditioned Response (CR): 1. Learned response vi. US elicits an automatic, natural and predictable response called UR 1. Original Pairing: CS  US  UR 2. After learning: CS -> CR vii. Behaviorism based on classical conditioning (Watson) 1. Fear: a. Elicited by sudden and unexpected loud sounds or sudden loss of support 2. Rage: a. Elicited when movement is constrained or restricted 3. Love: a. Elicited by stroking the erogenous zones 4. Lab experiment: a. conditioned an infant to fear a white rat by pairing the presentation of the rat with a sudden loud noise. b. Operant Conditioning: i. Reinforcement: 1. If a behavior is reinforced, it is strengthened 2. The process of increasing the likelihood of a particular response a. i.e.- it increases the likelihood of the behavior happening again ii. Reinforcer: 1. any stimulus that when presented after a behavior occurs it increases the likelihood that the behavior will happen again. Defined by what they do, not by what they are 2. Any event or stimulus that increases the likelihood of a response iii. Types of Reinforcers: 1. Primary: a. Unconditioned reinforcers related to survival b. A reinforcer that is inherently rewarding; that is, it relates to one’s survival 2. Secondary: a. Conditioned reinforcers. Originally neutral but acquires reinforcing qualities through association with primary reinforcers. c. Give examples of each type of reinforcer i. Primary: 1. food, water, elimination, and sex ii. Secondary: 1. academic grades, medals, awards, gifts, privileges d. What is a generalized reinforcer? Example? i. Generalized reinforcers: 1. secondary reinforcers that are paired with more than one primary reinforcer 3. What are the differences between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment? Examples? a. Positive Reinforcement: i. A positive reinforcer is presented (added) following a desired behavior and the likelihood of behavior increases b. Negative Reinforcement: i. A negative reinforcer is removed (subtracted) following a desired behavior and the likelihood of behavior increases c. Positive Punishment: i. A negative reinforcer is presented (added) following an undesired behavior and the likelihood of behavior decreases. d. Negative Punishment: i. A positive reinforcer is removed (subtracted) following an undesired behavior and the likelihood of behavior decreases 4. What are the shortcomings of punishment? a. The outcomes are unpredictable b. It may produce undesirable emotional response c. It indicates only what one should not do and doesn’t give information of what one should do d. It justifies inflicting pain on others 5. What is involved in the shaping of behaviors? Examples? a. Acquisition i. To learn a behavior, reinforce it b. Shaping: i. A process in which an organism’s behavior is gradually molded by successive approximations to the desired behavior ii. Differential Reinforcement: 1. Some responses are reinforced and others are not iii. Successive approximations: 1. Responses that are closer and closer to the desired behavior are required to maintain reinforcement 6. Define generalization, discrimination, extinction, and spontaneous recovery. a. Generalization: i. The tendency to extend a particular behavior pattern from the situation (cues) in which it was originally learned to other similar situations b. Discrimination: i. The tendency to respond differently depending upon the situation (cues); that is, response that is made under one set of circumstances but not under others c. Extinction: i. The withdrawal of reinforcement d. Spontaneous Recovery: i. The reappearance of the conditioned response after a pause, which suggests that extinction is actually inhibition rather than elimination of a response. 7. What are reinforcement schedules? a. Rules that maintain behaviors b. Conditioned reinforcement: i. Every time the desired response occurs, it gets reinforced (100%) c. Partial Reinforcement Schedules: i. Only some of the responses are reinforced ii. Interval: 1. Time since last reinforcement vs. RATIO or number of responses iii. Fixed: 1. Set time period or number of responses vs VARIABLE or changing time period or number of responses d. Explain continuous reinforcement schedule. i. Continuous reinforcement is least resistant to exitnction e. What are the differences between fixed interval schedules, variable interval schedules, fixed ratio schedules, and variable ratio schedules? Examples? i. Fixed-Interval Schedules: 1. Reinforcement is given for a response made after a set (specific) time period has elapsed. 2. Ex- Salaried work, exams ii. Variable-interval schedules: 1. The interval between reinforcements is randomly varied around a certain average of time 2. Ex- Pop quizzes, fishing, hunting iii. Fixed-ratio schedule: 1. Reinforcement is given after a set (specific) number of responses 2. Ex- Piecework, pay, commission iv. Variable-ratio schedule: 1. The number of responses required for reinforcement is varied randomly around a ratio that is averaged 2. Ex- slot machines, getting pregnant 3. Produces the highest rate of responding f. What is the partial reinforcement effect? i. Increase rate of responding ii. Increase resistance to extinction 8. What is superstitious behavior according to Skinner? a. An accidental connection between a reinforcer and a behavior i. i.e., a reinforer follows a response but it is not dependent on that response b. Why is superstitious behavior an example of non-contingent reinforcement? i. Reinforcement occurs regardless of what the organism is doing 1. Ex- Rain dances 9. What is our biggest problem? a. Man’s biggest problem is that his behavior is more easily influenced by small, but immediate and definite reinforcers than it is by large, but distant and uncertain reinforcers. b. How did Skinner suggest we deal with our biggest problem? Examples? i. Abnormal behavior is learned just like normal behavior ii. Contingency contracting c. What is contingency contracting? i. Can be used to design an entire culture 10. What were Skinner’s methods and emphases? a. Describe Skinner’s version of behavior therapy i. Token Economies b. What are token economies? i. Desirable behavior is reinforced by tokens that can be exchanged for reinforcers c. What is Skinner’s argument for cultural engineering? i. Describe Walden Two: Utopian society based on positive reinforcement. 1. Childrearing should be communal 2. Education should be related to practical situations 3. Work should be productive 4. Leisure time should be ample with activities centered on doing rather than merely observing 5. Personal relations should be cooperative and intimate 6. Sex roles should be egalitarian 7. The young and old should have active roles in the community life 8. Individuals with psychological disorders should be cared for in their community with useful roles found for them as much as possible 9. Government operates best when people behave responsibly toward each other d. What are the criticisms and the contributions of Skinner’s Theory? i. Criticisms: 1. Excessive generalization from animals to humans 2. Radical environmentalism 3. Who controls the controllers? ii. Contributions: 1. Applied value a. Programmed instruction 2. Scientifically rigorous a. Behavior analysis 3. Education 4. Industry 5. The helping professions 6. Animal training Chapter 10- Dollard and Miller 1. What are the differences between primary drives and secondary drives? a. Primary Drives: i. Biologically determined and directly related to survival – building blocks of personality ii. A drive associated with a psychological process that is necessary for the organism’s survival. b. Secondary Drives: i. Crucial component in human motivation ii. Most behavior reflects the operation of secondary drives. iii. Replace primary drives by secondary drives that become the reinforcers of most adult behaviors. c. Why are primary drives the building blocks of personality? i. A primary drive can give rise to learned or secondary drive, which can continue to motivate an organism’s behavior even when the primary source is no longer present. d. Describe Miller’s experiment of how fear became an acquired drive. i. Pain can rise fear which can continue even when the pain is gone. ii. Fear is often learned through classical conditioning, 1. It serves to motivate the instrumental learning of responses that reduce such fear. a. Responses are no longer reinforced—that cease to eliminate a fear-producing stimulus— i. They will be extinguished and replaced by new responses that successfully accomplish that goal. 2. What is a habit? a. Link between a stimulus and a response b. The basic structure of personality; a learned association between stimulus and response 3. What is a response hierarchy? a. Every cue elicits several responses; tendency for certain responses to occur before others b. What is an innate hierarchy if responses? i. Unconditioned, “unlearned” response c. What is a resultant hierarchy of responses? i. Your hierarchy is rearranged. 1. Ex- your normal seat is taken, so you have to sit somewhere else. d. What is the learning dilemma? Examples? i. A situation in which existing responses are not reinforced, forcing to learn new responses. ii. Learning depends on failure of known responses iii. Ex- You have a habit of sitting in the back, but you can’t hear. 1. Something that was working, but no longer does, so you have to do something else. 4. What is instrumental learning? a. The rearrangement of a hierarchy of responses b. Drive? Examples? i. Energizes behavior ii. Impels action, so it is motivational (engine) iii. “want something” iv. The psychological correlate of a need or stimulus that impels an organism into action. v. The primary motivation for behavior c. Cue? Examples? i. Guides behavior ii. It indicates the appropriate direction an activity should take 1. I.e., when, where, and how to respond iii. Discriminant stimulus for learning iv. “Notice something” v. A specific stimulus that tells the organism, when, where, and how to respond d. Response? i. “Do something” ii. A behavior that results from stimulus. iii. One’s reaction to a cue. iv. Any activity in which an organism engages v. Overt 1. Instrumental in reducing a drive vi. Internal 1. Cue-producing responses 2. Entail thinking 3. Distinguish reasoning from planning a. Reasoning: solving an immediate problem b. Planning: Solution of a future problem e. Reinforcement? i. Equated with drive reduction ii. “get something” 5. What are the four critical training situations of childhood? a. Feeding (oral) b. Cleanliness (anal) c. Sex (Phallic) d. Anger and aggression (no stage) i. Most neuroses originate in early childhood. 6. How were Freudian constructs studied scientifically? a. Displacement: i. A substitution of one goal for another ii. Displacement of aggression b. Displacement? TIP: Describe how they experimentally demonstrated displaced aggression in the lab with rats. i. Two rats fighting; one rat is still aggressive from the fight and displaces it toward another organism or object. 7. What is the frustration-aggression hypothesis? a. Interference with goal attainment b. Frustration leads to aggression c. What is the current conclusion regarding the frustration-aggression hypothesis? i. The original hypothesis proved far too broad: 1. Aggression is only one possible response to frustration, and aggression has many causes ii. The modern view: Frustration leads to a stress reaction, and some persons cope with stress by engaging in counterproductive behavior. 8. There are two major types of unconscious experience. What are they? a. Experiences that were never verbalized b. Repressed experiences i. Suppression and repression c. Distinguish suppression from repression i. Suppression: 1. Conscious effort to stop thoughts that cause anxiety ii. Repression: anticipatory 1. When potentially painful thoughts are aborted automatically (before they enter consciousness) 2. Not thinking thoughts that are unpleasant. 9. What are the components of neurosis and symptom formation? a. The neurotic is stupid and miserable b. Conflict is at the core of neurotic behavior i. Conflict is unconscious and learned in childhood ii. Neurotic conflicts are taught by parents and learned by children c. The neurotic develops symptoms that are manifestations of repressed conflict i. Neurotic symptoms are learned because they reduce anxiety d. Stupidity-misery-syndrome: i. A term for a neurosis, which typically originates in childhood due to some unconscious conflict. e. Neurotic behavior can be unlearned by bringing conflicts into consciousness, where fears can be experienced without harmful consequences i. With lessened fear, repression is not needed, and without reinforcement, fear gradually extinguishes f. How does psychotherapy work according to Dollard and Miller? i. Psychotherapy provides a way to unlearn maladaptive behaviors 1. Teaching behavioral coping 2. Teaching discrimination of cues 3. Teaching relaxation (drive reduction) ii. Also provides guidance as how best to adjust. 10. Explain the four types of conflict investigated by Dollard and Miller. Examples? a. Double-approach avoidance i. Goal 1 (+)  Person  Goal 2 (+) ii. Ex- 1. Shall I fly first class or take a ship to Europe? 2. An individual wants to take a drama class on Tuesday and Thursday nights and also wants to attend chess club meetings on Thursday nights. b. Avoidance-Avoidance i. Goal 1 (-)  person  Goal 2 (-) ii. This type of conflict is common and provokes a significant level of stress, as people vacillate and try to escape. iii. Ex- 1. A student knows they must either write a report or perform an experiment, neither of which they want to do. c. Approach-Avoidance i. Person  Goal (+) ii. Person  Goal (-) iii. Ex: 1. Tanya has been with Company X for 12 years. She is offered a job promotion as vice president of the company. It would pay her much more than she is currently making (approach). However, if she accepts this position, she would have to move to a city that is far away from her beloved extended family (avoidance). d. Approach-Approach i. Goal 1 (+)  Person  Goal 2 (+) ii. Goal 1 (-)  Person  Goal 2 (-) iii. Ex- 1. The electra complex in Freudian theory 2. Choosing between two different cars, each with differing pros and cons. One car (goal 1) gets great gas mileage and has lots of fancy stuff (approach) but is very expensive and high maintenance (avoidance). The other car (goal 2) is cheap and easy to maintain (approach) but very boring and won’t last long (avoidance). 11. What are the criticisms and contributions of Dollard and Miller’s theory? a. Criticisms: i. Unsuccessful synthesis of Hull’s and Freud’s theory ii. Overgeneralization from animals to humans iii. Emphasizing simple behaviors, especially in subhuman animals, and Neglects complex cognitive functions 1. Research suggests that reinforcement often does not produce drive reduction iv. Can be applied on only a very limited basis v. More concerned with the process of learning than with specifying either stimuli or responses vi. Holistic theorists believe that the S-R theory’s segmental, atomistic approach cannot inform a true understanding of human behavior. b. Contributions: i. Synthesis of Hull’s and Freud’s Theory ii. Emphasis on learning process iii. Clear description of therapeutic process iv. Offers a heard-headed, positivist, empirically oriented approach that embraces a large range of phenomena v. Has a clear sense of the nature and function of theory in an empirical discipline vi. Its emphasis on the learning process provides an excellent model for other theoretical positions. Chapter 11- Bandura and Mischel 1. Explain cognitive social learning theory. a. Triangle diagram of behavior (top) , environmental factors (right), and personal factors (left) b. Human behavior is largely acquired and maintained. c. Learning principles are sufficient to account for the development and maintenance of human behavior. d. Humans think and regulate their own behavior. Humans are not pawns of the environment 2. What is Bandura’s reciprocal determinism, and what are the 5 cognitive social person variables described in class and in the text? a. Reciprocal Determinism: i. Behavioral, personal and environmental factors constitute a system that mutually influence one another over time. ii. The regulation of behavior by an interplay of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors iii. The continuous reciprocal interaction among the cognitive person, the person’s behavior and the external environment. b. Encoding strategies. What are they? i. How we see (categorize) experience c. Expectancies. What are they? i. What we think will happen ii. Behavior-outcome expectancies: 1. Used when specifics about current situation are unknown, based on past, similar experiences 2. What should I expect if I act this way? 3. If I act this way, it will have the following result 4. Ex- a. If I study 3 hours, will I get an A? b. If I run, will I catch the bus? iii. Stimulus-outcome expectancies: 1. What will happen next? 2. Learned from past experiences 3. I know what to expect from this stimulus d. Subjective values. What are they? i. What is worth having or doing ii. Values are attached to outcomes e. Self-regulatory systems and plans. What are they? i. How do we attain our goals? f. Competencies. What are they? i. What we know and are capable of doing ii. “tools” or ways of thinking about life problems and behavioral skills in executing solutions to them iii. ex- 1. Knowing structure of the physical world 2. Social rules and conventions 3. Rehearsal strategies for learning 3. What are the components of Bandura’s self-system? a. Cognitive structures that underlie the perception, evaluation, and regulation of behavior. Most behavior is Self-regulated via the establishment of performance standards. b. Cognitive structures and subfunctions involved in perception,
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