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PSY 263 Study Guide - Final Guide: Orgasm, Antipsychotic, Zygote

Course Code
PSY 263
Study Guide

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Exam #2 Study Guide
Animals in Research
1. Understanding animal nervous system and behavior are interesting for their own
2. As less complex organisms with less complex patterns of behavior, animals are
good models of humans
3. Certain experiments cannot be ethically performed on humans
4. Most understanding of human diseases are disorders and most drug treatment for
them result from research using animals
Arguments Against
1. Do not know if animals have a consciousness similar to humans
2. Animals may differ in complex and unknown ways from humans…May not be a
model for humans at all
3. Assumes a hierarchy of values among animals (including humans)
Practical Use of Animals
1. National Institutes of Health: Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals
(and other NIH publications).
2. Society for Neuroscience (and other professional organizations).
3. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
Ethics of Research: Humans
1. Institutional Review Board (IRB)
2. American Psychological Association (APA)

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Exam #2 Study Guide
3. American Psychiatric Association (APA)
4. American Medical Association (AMA)
Some Key Issues
1. Genetic (and other) Testing
2. Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Methods for Human Research
1. Post-mortem exam of brain form people with altered or atypical behavior
(correctional neuroanatomy)
2. Brocas Aphasia
a. Telegraphic speech: “Dog hid table ate bone”
b. Damage to left frontal lobe of cortex
3. Parkinsons Disease
a. Movement disorder: tremor, rigidity and slow movement
b. Loss of neurons in substantia nigra (black substance) in brain
Non-Intrusive Methods
1. Anatomical Methods:
a. X-rays, CAT scan, MRI (images of brain)
b. Functional MRI (fMRI)
i. Examines blood flow/oxygen to brain areas
2. Electrical Recordings: (All of these used in lie detector except EEG)
a. EEG: brain waves
b. ECG, EKG: heart activity

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Exam #2 Study Guide
c. EMG: muscle activity
d. GSR: skin conductance (sweating)
Staining Neurons: humans and animals (post-mortem research)
1. Golgi stain: shows a small percent of neurons in their entirety
2. Nissl Stains: shows cell bodies of all neurons (good for gray matter structures)
3. Myelin Stains: shows myelin on axons (good for white matter structures)
Methods for Animal Research
1. Behavioral Pharmacology: Administer drugs and assess behavior
2. Lesions: damage brain, assess behavior and brain function
3. Voltammetry: make chemical measurements in brain
4. Electrophysiology: Record action potentials in brain
1. Most drugs that affect the nervous system do so somewhere in the life cycle of one
(or more) neurotransmitters
2. This will increase or decrease the strength of the “message” that is received by the
post-synaptic cell
e.g. tryptophan (amino acid pressure for serotonin)
Serotonin (synthesis)
Tryptophan  5 HTP serotonin
Increase in serotonin = sleepiness
Decrease in serotonin = insomnia
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