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Midterm

PSY 350 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Anorgasmia, Sexual Dysfunction, Lovemap


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 350
Professor
All
Study Guide
Midterm

Page:
of 4
Study guide for test #3
1. What do all sexual disorders have in common?
- significant restrictions in ability to make love
2. What is "sexual dysfunction" (be sure to distinguish from "sexual disorder")?
- disabilities having to do with PERFORMANCE of sex or SATISFACTION
derived from it.
- must be chronic, and it could be global (any relationship) or specific (1 person)
3. What are the varieties of sexual dysfunction that were mentioned in class?
- 1) sexual unresponsiveness (15 % of men and 20-35% girls)
-2) sexual aversion (negative emotional reaction, ex anxiety/ disgust) NO MEN
-3) erectile dysfunction
-4) orgasmic dysfunction
4. What causes of sexual dysfunction were mentioned in class?
- 1) physical
-2) negative emotional states arising from the relationship (sexual
misunderstanding like “he just wants my body”) due to diff views on sex
5. According to the article, "sexual misunderstanding," what is the common difference
between men and women in the significance they attach to the act of sexual interourse?
How can this difference lead to problems in their relationship?
- women think it’s a way to further express an ALREADY EXISTING connection
and men think it’s a way to ESTABLISH that connection. The man will try to
have sex to resolve problems and the woman will reject him. Low self esteem.
6. What is a "paraphilia?"
- sexual disorders in which the person can only be fully aroused by activities
and/or objects other than sexual intercourse.
-Varieties: fetishism (turned on by objects), sadism/masochism (pain),
transvestism, exhibitionism (exposing self), pedophilia
7. Can classical conditioning explain paraphilia completely? Partially? At all?
- partially it may explain how some people acquire paraphilias but does not
explain for all people
8. How does john money, in his famous "lovemap" theory, explain Paraphilia?
- it’s a case of “turning tragedy into triumph”. Person is unable to integrate
sexuality with lovemaking. They attach sexuality to something else. “sexual
rebel”
9. How does bergner explain paraphilia?
- 1) child is DEGRADED and this gives the child a NEED to be self affirmed
-2) paraphilic ritual- preferred scenario that represents attempted recovery from
Degradation. (ex goes online and finds porn stars SMILING at him).
-3) urges are powerful because normal sexual motivation and need for recovery
creates a powerful “cocktail”
10. What three general criteria are used to determine when Substance use has become
substance dependence (aka "addiction")?
- 1) loss of control
-2) impairment in social and/or work functioning
-3) tolerance and withdrawal
11. What very general theory was advocated as to the nature of the inherited factor in
alcoholism?
- Individual difference in drug responsiveness, possibly related to pleasure
derived from alcohol.
12. What effects of alcohol were mentioned in class that make it an attractive drug for
most people, but in the bargain also make it attractive for some persons to abuse?
- pleasure, tension reduction, disinhibition, relieves withdrawal symptoms,
removes conditioned cravings, replaces depleted endorphins (endorphin
compensation hypothesis)
13. What is the "endorphin compensation hypothesis?"
-depleted endorphins are replaced
14. What theory was advanced in class regarding why Jonathan b. Drank?
- always treated like he was helpless so when he moved out of his parents house,
he felt overwhelmed and started drinking to reduce anxiety
15. What, if any, role might jonathan's wife have played in his Drinking?
- she covers for him when he is drunk so in a way that is like saying it’s okay.
16. What are the primary characteristics of narcissistic Personality disorder?
- 1) exaggerated sense of personal specialness, importance, and being set apart or
above others
-2) sense of entitlement to special treatement
-3) ignorance of and disregard for others rights and feelings
-4) extreme preoccupation with receiving affirmations of others
-5) don’t let others get too close
17. What is freud's definition of the term "narcissism"?
- “inability to be invested in others except in so far as they gratify self in some
way”
- narcissism is the opposite of love which in all its forms (romantic, parental, etc)
has the essential feature that one is invested in the well being of beloved for
his/her own sake
18. What is kernberg's explanation for why the narcissist is so addicted to the attention,
praise, and admiration of other persons?
- Narcissists have low self-esteem and therefore they need affirmations from
others to boost their esteem. It satisfies their esteem needs.
19. What is kernberg's explanation for why narcissists are unable to love other persons?
- because their needs for affirmation to be met prevents them from being truly
invested in others
20. What is kernberg's explanation for the "love em and leave em" pattern characteristic
of narcissists?
- narcissist is no longer interested in the other once the tribute has been exacted.
May also fear that the person wont like him/her when they really get to know
him/her
21. What is antisocial personality disorder?
- the total disregard for and violation of the rights of others, as well as
engagement in multiple illegal behaviors
22. What is shapiro's "short circuit theory" of the impulsive Psychopath?
-
Psychopaths go from impulse to action in this cycle
23. What is bergner's theory regarding impulsive persons, including impulsive
psychopaths?
- 1) go through full cycle of Shapiro’s Theory but have negative experiences in
relationships, life goals, and moral values
-2) psychopaths morality: I have a reason to treat people this way; they did it to
me.
-3) psychopaths are not wired wrong. But given the world they live in, they have
reasons to be antisocial, and lack reasons to restrain themselves
Study guide #3: emphases for text
From chapter 13
24. What are the "five layers of erotic life"; and how do they relate to how changeable
some sexual problem might be? (DEEPER = HARDER TO CHANGE)
-1) gender identity (transsexualism and awareness of your sex)
-2) sexual orientation (straight,gay, bi)
-3) sexual preference/sexual interest (what part of the body, what kind of people,
and what situation you find yourself fantasizing about)
-4) sex role (what an individual does to say he is a man or a woman)
-5) sexual performance (how well you perform when you are w/ the right person)
25. What is the most prominent theory today regarding the origin of sexual orientation?
- Fetal disruption theory hormonal events in the womb create a strong
predisposition to homosexuality or being straight
26. What is "sensate focus" and why do masters and johnson employ it?
- Major strategy of direct sexual therapy for impaired excitement in females and
erectile dysfunction in males. (Also, anxiety during sex blocks sexual
excitement)
27. What are some typical characteristics (or "profile") of child molesters?
- having sex with children, undressing them and looking at them, masturbating in
front of them, touching them.
28. Is a child more likely to be molested by a stranger or someone s/he knows (e.g., a
neighbor or family member)?
- Someone the child knows
29. What is a transsexual?
- man wanting to be a woman or a woman wanting to be a man
30. How does your book explain why someone would be transsexual?
- its caused be a hormonal process in the 2nd and 4th month of pregnancy.
31. How changeable is transsexualism through therapy? What is the most effective
solution to this difficulty at this time?
- therapy is useless and the most effective solution is reassignment surgery
32. What scientific scandal was john money involved in? (answer is in a box in chapter,
not in regular text)
- he consulted a family that had a son with a cut off penis so they raised her as a
girl