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HD FS 345 Study Guide - Final Guide: Muscle Tone, Hypotonia, Apache Hadoop

Human Development and Family Studies
Course Code
HD FS 345
Study Guide

of 5
HDFS 345
Fall 2009
Time of Exam: Thursday December 17 2009, 12:00-2:00
Study Guide for Exam 3
When asked to list – you can make a simple list of what is requested.
When asked to describe or define – use complete sentences and give more detail in your answer.
When given a case study make sure you apply to that case, and answer all parts of the question .
Definitions of Motor Impairments: Deficits in muscle tone
1. Hypotonic (Hypotonia): low tone and floppy, less active and tire easily
2. Hypertonic (Hypertonia): high tone or spastic, difficulty assuming and maintaining
3. Fluctuating muscle tone: low tone at rest but high tone when moving
Deficits with muscle control: writing movements, tremors, fluctuating muscle tone
Deficits with muscle strength: Polio, Muscular Dystrophy and such
Definitions of Positioning and Handling
1. Supine: lying on the back
2. Prone: lying on the stomach
3. W sitting: sitting with legs in a w shape and outward
4. Side lying: lying on side
-Put in chairs for eating
-Put on floor for play and sleeping
Interventions and Adaptations
Classrooms: grips, big fat pencils, scissors that have a handle, adapt electronic toys and
computer with button, recordings, open spaces, talk about disability, include in all activities,
have pictures of children with different disabilities, have positioning things by others so child
can lay and play with others
Equipment: wheelchairs, walkers, positioning pillows, boppys, prone and supine standers are
those that support upright positions either on the back or the stomach, upright toys, suction toys
to chair tray, balls, and stuffed animals
? Toys and self-care things:
Sensory Impairments: Vision & Hearing
Hearing Impairments: hearing disability ranges from mild to profound
Deaf: hearing loss that is so severe that even with aides cant use audition to process language
Hard of Hearing: can process language through use of aide but impairs social, cognitive and
language development
Speech and Language Skills
1. Hard to to learn to speak
2. Comprehension of English is below children with norm hearing
3. Speech intelligibility is poor
Educational Achievement
1. Delayed compared to normal student
2. Delay as much as 4-6 years
3. Language and reading biggest issue
Social Development
1. Limited language lead to less social interactions
2. Greater hearing loss the greater the social isolation
3. Deaf culture: those who are deaf socialize with each other more than any other disability
(they see nothing wrong with themselves and that they are normal)
1. Otologists: diagnose ear disease
2. Audiologists: test for types of hearing loss, fit for hearing aids
3. Hearing aids, fm audio systems, cochlear implants
1. Oral communication: speech reading and verbal speech
2. Manual Communication: American Sign Language, signed English, finger spelling
3. Total communication
4. Sign language interpreter
1. Acoustics for sound transition
2. Positions away from sound distractions
1. Child has clear view
2. Relies on vision
3. Label materials
4. Allow child to feel sounds
5. Involve child in everything
6. Get child visual attention
7. Make sure child can see your face when communicating
8. Additional cues: touch, animated faces, gestures
1. Teach peers to communicate: picture comm. Boards, sign language, pictures and sign
around room, adapt songs with hand movements
Visual Impairments
1. Blind: require Braille or aural methods for learning, not print
2. Low vision: can read print, if larger or magnifying glass
1. Understanding spatial concepts
Speech and Language
1. Disadvantage to new words
Educational Achievement
1. Significant delays
2. Reading is poor
3. 2 years behind normal peers
Social Development
1. Difficulty with relationships are common
2. Lack in input
3. More cautious
Motor Development
1. Locomotion skils lagging
2. Affects fine motor
3. Spatial relations off
4. Move in environment known
1. Lighting
2. Movement, a lot of room, encourages exploration
3. Materials: color/light, tactile explorations, drawing with crayons and markers
1. Communicate about his or her world
2. Tell child what to expect in diff activities