[JL MC 476] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (18 pages long)

36 views18 pages

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

ISU
JL MC 476
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
I. Theories of the Press
A. The Power of Visuals
1. The kind of visuals that stick with us overtime
a) Example: Martin Luther King, Jr.
B. The Hypodermic Needle Effect of Visuals
1. Visuals can change opinions and attitudes - they become “icons of
outrage.”
2. News pictures have the special ability to demand and focus attention on
one time, one place, event or issue and can bypass the normal channels
of foreign policy decision making.
3. Visuals have the ability to evoke emotional responses - anger, agitation,
sympathy - across cultures and across time.
4. However: No picture ever says it all. No newspaper is ever expected to
show both visual sides of a story.
a) Example: 1993 - Sudan Famine (Kevin Carter)
b) Example: 1968 - Saigon Police Chief Executes Captured Vietcong
(Eddie Adams)
C. Four Theories of the Press
1. In the U.S., although the media are a business, they have certain
obligations based on history, tradition, ethics, law.
2. Quality journalism is supposed to afflict the comfortable and comfort the
afflicted.
3. Remember the four variables that determine media systems.
4. Based on them, the U.S. media are expected to:
a) Investigate wrongdoing by public officials
b) Report on the shortcomings of government and officials
D. The Four Theories
1. Authoritarian
a) Developed in the 16th and 17th centuries
b) Highly concentrated and centralized power structure in which a
repressive system that excludes potential challengers has
absolute power - over the people and over the press
c) The press supports the regime and can’t criticize it
d) The press must be licensed
e) No guarantee of civil liberties; no tolerance for opposition / dissent
f) Self-appointed rulers → rigged elections or coups; corruption,
bureaucracy
(1) Examples: Any country that has or had an authoritarian
regime. Germany under Hitler, Italy under Mussolini, Spain
under Franco.
g) Today: Syria and Uzbekistan & Chad (presidential republics),
Iran & Afghanistan (islamic states), Burma and Fiji (military
rule), Saudi Arabia (absolute monarchy)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
h) RWA Scale measures authoritarianism - characterized by
submission to authority, moral absolutism, and intolerance and
punitiveness towards dissidents and deviants. Support for social
control and coercion - support for restrictions on immigration,
limits on free speech and association and lows regulating moral
behavior. In parenting, right-ring author's value children’s
obedience, discipline, neatness and good manners.
2. Communist
a) From Marx, Lenin, and Stalin; it is related to the authoritarian
theory
b) The main difference is that under the Soviet-Communist systems,
the state (a small group of party leaders) pretty much owns all
forms of mass media directly
c) Press contributes to the success of the state by
(1) Playing down everything bad under communism
(a) While
(2) Playing up everything bad in democratic countries
d) For example, the Soviet media avoid covering accidents like train
wrecks and man-made or natural disasters. Why? Because they
make the government look bad.
e) Reforms of Gorbachev and the collapse of the Soviet Union
(1) 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of Glasnost (openness)
free public access to information after decades of heavy
government censorship
f) His reforms replaced Soviet-planned economy with market
economy and moved to end the Cold War. Not all communist
countries joined the reform - boiling tension.
g) Results:
(1) November 1989 - the Berlin wall fell; several revolutions
around Eastern Europe
(2) December 25, 1991 - Gorbachev resigned, marking the
end to the Soviet Union
h) Communism Today
(1) Russia and most of the former Soviet republic have had a
difficult time transitioning from communism to democracy.
Some of the reforms have not lasted.
(2) In Russia, crime is rampant. A strong mob element (former
KGB members) took over areas of the economy. The
government has exercised more and more control over the
media.
i) Communist States (single-party republics):
(1) China (despite media commercialization in the past 15
years)
(2) North Korea (the hermit kingdom)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class