[PSY-P 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 21 pages long Study Guide!

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PSY-P 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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P101 Lecture 3 Notes- Tools of Psychological Research (cont.) 1-17-17
Check on SONA email: if you havent gotten it by Thursday, check by Friday in PY main lobby office (with
Misty)
Seating chart for exam
Review
o Purpose of descriptive research- observe and describe behaviors
4 types: naturalistic observation, case studies, surveys, psychological assessments
o Ways to summarize data:
Measures of central tendencies (how data clumps together)
Measures of variability/dispersion (how data spreads out)
Uses range and standard deviation
o Purpose of correlational research- see whether 2 variables are related
Correlation causation
Cannot speak to one variable causing behavior of another
Use correlation coefficient: −1 < � < 1
|| ~ 1 indicates very strong relationship
Sign indicates direction
To visualize data, use scatter plot
o When evaluating research, consider:
External validity- problem in case studies
Reactivity
Third/confounding variables
Ex. Hembrooke & Gay (2003)
o Randomly selected half of class of students to be in lab, other half in lecture taking notes on given
laptops
Allows even distribution of different kinds of students
o Quiz taken after lecture, then switched
o Students never knew they were being tested; single-blind study- participants do not know which
condition they are in
o Professor gives same lecture to students who can only use pen and paper
Expecting certain group to do better or worse on quiz can cause professor (who knows about
groups) to act differently toward groups regarding information for quiz
Double-blind study- experimenter and participants do not know what to expect
o Students without laptop got 63% average, those with got 53% average
Should have equal intelligence/motivation between groups
Laptop open group broken into browsers (spent > 50% on class-related material on laptop, going
from place to place) and seekers (spent more time on unrelated material, then go directly to
class-related item when they had question); browsers got 55%, seekers 43%
Can infer causation from browsers/seekers info- did not manipulate online activity
Ex. Mueller & Oppenheimer (2014)
o Experiment #1: When participants walked into lab, randomly assigned to use pen/paper or laptop
Given TED talk videos, told to take notes, will be given quiz after
30 min distraction given after videos
Test given with fact questions (repeating back something heard) and concept questions
(integrating different across material/videos, applying definitions to scenarios)
On factual questions, not much difference
On conceptual difference, large difference; almost every pen/paper student did better than
those on laptops
Can establish causation that pen/paper enhanced performance
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When writing, no time to transcribe what is being said; must identify main ideas and put in own
words
Laptop not harmful, but the way people take notes on them causes decreased performance
o Experiment #2: Intervention
Laptop students given instructions on how to take notes on laptop; dont try to get everything
Everything else stayed same
Laptop students without intervention did overall much worse than written students; laptop
students with intervention did slightly better than non-intervention laptop people, but still
worse than average
Ex. Sana, Weston, & Cepeda (2013)
o How does laptop use for notes affect other students?
o Students given pen/paper for notes
o Confederates planted around room using laptops (experimenter, pretending to be participant)
o How do the students (using pen/paper) behind the confederate using a laptop perform? Does it
impact them?
15% worse than those behind someone without laptop
o Visual system tuned in to changes on computer screens; automatic distraction, even if
unintentional/subliminal
o Conclusion: students tend to use laptops; dont do as well
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