PSY-P 101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Depressant, Cerebellum, Hypnagogia

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Ch.1: Thinking Critically w/ psychological science
Hindsight Bias: finding that something has happened makes it
seem inevitable. “I knew it all along phenomenon”, proves a need
for psychological research.
Overconfidence: Humans tend to think they know more than
they do. (Combined with hindsight bias; leads us to overestimate
our intuition.)
Why is Psychology a science?
Critical Thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept
arguments and conclusions, rather, it examines assumptions,
discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assessed
conclusions.
Placebo Effect: well documented in reducing pain, depression,
and anxiety. The more expensivethe more “real”, experimental
results caused by expectations alone. Any effect on behavior
caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition,
which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
What can a scientist do to ensure the accuracy/limit of their
experiments? Random Sampling best way for generalizing is
from a representative sample of cases; a representation of a
whole populations attitudes and experience.
Ch. 2: The Biology of the Mind
Phrenology: popular but ill fated theory that claimed bumps on
the skull could reveal our metal abilities and our character traits.
Dendrites: receive messages from other cells, bushy branching
extensions of a neuron, receive messages and conduct impulses
toward the cell body
Synapses: junction btw. the axon tip of the sending neuron and
the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. Tiny gap.
Axons: extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal
fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons and or to
muscles/ glands.(away from cell body-> other neurons, glands,&
muscles)
All-or-none Response: increasing the level of stimulation above
the threshold will not increase the neural impulses’ intensity
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Document Summary

Hindsight bias: finding that something has happened makes it seem inevitable. I knew it all along phenomenon , proves a need for psychological research. Overconfidence: humans tend to think they know more than they do. (combined with hindsight bias; leads us to overestimate our intuition. ) Critical thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions, rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assessed conclusions. Placebo effect: well documented in reducing pain, depression, and anxiety. The more expensive the more real , experimental results caused by expectations alone. Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent. Random sampling best way for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases; a representation of a whole populations attitudes and experience. Phrenology: popular but ill fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our metal abilities and our character traits.

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