[PSY-B 356] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (28 pages long!)

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PSY-B 356
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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B356 Lecture 1
1.
Evolution
Note: a main point in chapter 1: motivation traced to fundamental processes of life
- reproduction of genetic information
Evolution: process by which living things developed from primitive organisms
through changes over time.
1700s idea of evolution germinates:
Carolus Linnaeus classified organisms
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Genus, Species
Noticed close similarities amongst certain species, which suggested some sort of
“blood relationship”, “Family Tree”
Geology and paleontology
James Hutton (1726-1877), Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
Change due to natural processes (erosion, sedimentation, volcanism)
Different layers of stratified rock represented different time periods
Each layer had distinctive fossil remains of plants and animals
Age of earth much older than previously thought
(Biblical age: 6,000 years; now estimated 4.5 billion years)
Gradual change over immense time
1800s Theories of how evolution works:
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
-an individual can acquire traits during its lifetime which can be passed on to the
next generation
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B356 Lecture 1
2.
Thomas Robert Malthus
British economist
Theory of population growth and limited resources
When population reaches limit ---> famine, disease, war
Who survives? The most fit.
Charles Darwin
British
-Son of wealthy physician (Robert Darwin) and Susannah Wedgwood Darwin
-Later married his cousin Emma Wedgewood
-Was an indifferent student
First to went to medical school U of Edinburgh -dropped out
Then studied to become a priest at Cambridge
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