PSY-B 356 Final: Final Exam Study Giude

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PSY-B - Psychology
PSY-B - Psychology PSY-B 356
Robert Stewert

B356 Exam 3 review/guide PSY B356 EXAM 3 REVIEW The exam will consist of 40 multiple choice questions x 2 points = 80 points 5 short answer essay questions x 4 points = 20 points Total = 100 points Content: Material presented in lecture and the textbook, chapters (pages) 8 (235-247), 9 (268- 300), 10 (303-306), 11 (331-351) A good general rule is to study especially well any topic covered in the posted lecture outlines. Cognitive Pioneers Edward Tolman UC at Berkely; Cognitive view of behavior Holistic rather than reductionistic like most behavioristic theories -behavior has purpose: directed toward or away from specific goals Expectancies: -learn expectation that particular behaviors lead to particular goals -form a mental image of where goals are located ----> Cognitive map (Tolman and Honzik 1930) latent learning study 1. B356 Exam 3 review/guide Demonstration of cognitive map idea: place learning (Tolman, Ritchie, Kalish 1946) Do organisms learn stimulus-response connections or a mental image of the location of a goal? S2 F2 choice point F1 S1 Group 1: response learning group -alternated starting in S1 and S2 -correct response: always turn right S1----> F1 S2----> F2 Group 2: place learning group -also alternated starting in S1 and S2 but food always in same place (e.g., F1) -if start in S1, correct response = right turn -if start in S2, correct response = left turn -had to learn where food was rather than a simple response rule (always turn right) Result: place learning group (Group 2) learned more quickly than response learning group (Group 1) Conclusion: animals develop expectations about the environment; learn where food is not what response to make -----> cognitive map Kurt Lewin 1930s, 40s -a second cognitive pioneer -we are goal-seeking organisms, always approaching or avoiding something. -overall theme: the person P and the environment E An individual is influenced by a wide variety of needs: bodily needs (food, water etc.) and psychological needs (e.g., I need to do well on this test) Needs lead to tensions Tensions motivate action (which reduces the tension) Valence: the positive or negative value environmental objects have for individuals 2. B356 Exam 3 review/guide -attractive or tension reducing objects ---> positive valence -threatening or tension producing objects ---> negative valence Lewin’s vector theory of motivation: One force may be in conflict with another Motivational conflicts (Lewin 1948) 1. Approach-approach conflicts -equally attracted to two or more goals of equal positive valences 2. Approach-avoidance conflicts -the same (one) activity or goal has both a positive and a negative valence 3. Avoidance-avoidance conflicts -choices between two or more goals of equal negative valences 4. Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts -several possible choices, each with advantages and disadvantages Expectancy-Value Theory Julian Rotter 1950 -probability of behavior depends on 1. value of goal (in environment) for the individual 2. the person’s expectancy of obtaining the goal B = E x V B: behavior; E: expectancy; V: value We choose behaviors with the largest combination of expected success. Social learning theory (Rotter along with Albert Bandura) Expectancies and values are learned: through personal experience, by observing others Different expectations of how reinforcement is controlled (Rotter 1966, 1975): Continuum of internality-externality Internality: belief that reinforcement results from own behavior Externality: belief that reinforcements are controlled by forces outside oneself such as luck, fate Measured using a questionnaire: The locus-of-control scale Achievement Motivation Measurement of need to achieve: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) -given series of about 20 pictures -subjects asked to make up a story or situation illustrated in the picture -look for certain themes in the story -count # of times striving for goals and achievements are mentioned Social Influences Social facilitation: Coaction effect (competition) Audience effect (others observing) --> energize/improve performance (humans and animals) 3. B356 Exam 3 review/guide -probably due to arousal but audience and competition also can worsen performance -"dominant" response is facilitated; most probable (well learned, practiced) Conformity -group pressure; motivation to “go along” with the group -all of us have a tendency to conform Experimental demonstration of conformity; Soloman Asch 1950s, 60s X A B C -participant (college student) enters room with four or more other participants -shown straight line X and three comparison lines A, B, C. “Which of the three is closest in length to X?” -others are “stooges”; they choose first; all choose A Response of subjects: 80% conform at least once; 33% all the time Compliance: response to a direct request Foot-in-the-door (FITD) effect: more likely to consent to a large request if previously agreed to a smaller request Door-in-the-face (DITF) effect: First presenting a very large request (refused) increases compliance to a second, smaller request. Obedience: response to authority figures, e.g., to police, political leaders Differences between obedience and conformity Obedience Conformity -less voluntary (not always want to obey) -more voluntary (usually want to conform) -often response to one individual -usually result of group pressure -pressure by someone of higher status or power -peer pressure (approximately equal status) Classic studies on obedience (Stanley Milgram 1960s, 70s) -subject asked to teach another subject -deliver increasingly painful shock for incorrect answers to memory task -other subject a stooge, faked being shocked How far will subjects be willing to go in obeying the experimenter? Found: most subjects appeared “uncomfortable” administering shocks but about 60% went all the way to the highest levels Explanation:Detached responsibility: simply an instrument; “following orders”; blame laid on experimenter 4. B356 Exam 3 review/guide Zimbardo’s Mock Prison -volunteer subjects, male college students; selected only emotionally-stable volunteers -but got carried away with roles guards ---> brutal jailers, prisoners ---> passive -study had to be called off prematurely Emphasized power of situation vs personality characteristics Bystander Intervention Bibb Latane, John Darley (social psychologists in NYC) “The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn’t he help?” -case: Kitty Genovese, stabbed to death; over half an hour; 38 neighboors witness; not intervene Factors tending to prevent bystander intervention: Situational factors: 1. Amount of commitment:Minor (e.g., time of day) more likely , Major (e.g., money) less likely 2. perceived risk to helper of giving assistance 3. not knowing how to help; unable to help 4. whether or not you are in a hurry; Study with seminary students (Darley and Batson 1976) Social factors that prevent intervention: A. Failure to recognize situation as emergency 1. presence of others reduces scanning of the environment (avoiding eye contact) -e.g., smoke filled r
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