[PSY-B 365] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (17 pages long)

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PSY-B 365
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1 notes
Introducing Health Psychology
Health Psychology- subfield of psychology that applies psychological principles and research to
the enhancement of health and the treatment and prevention of illness.
-social conditions
-biological factors
-personality traits
Health-a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being.
Health Disparities- preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury violence, or
opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantages
populations.
Although men are twice as likely as women to dies of any cause, beginning in middle age
women have higher disease and disability rates.
1 million deaths in the US a year are preventable
There are a few main goals to improve the overall health:
1.attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and
premature death
2.achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups
3.create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
4.promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life
stages
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) a new federal law aimed at reducing the
number of people in the Unites States who do not have health insurance, as well as lowering
the costs of health care.
-decrease the number of people who do not have health insurance
-lower costs of health care
-insurers will be required to cover certain types of preventive care at no cost to the
consumer
Health Through the Ages
Prehistoric:
-When a person became sick they attributed it to bewitchment or possession of an evil spirit.
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-Treatments could have included ritual of sorcery, exorcism, or a form of surgery called
trephination.
-Trephination- a hold was drilled in the human skull, presumably to allow evil spirits to
escape
Greek and Roman Medicine:
-the most dramatic advances in public health were made in Greece and Rome during the 6th
and 5th centuries B.C.E.
-a drainage system was built to drain a swamp, and became very like a modern sewage system
-by the first century C.E. public bathrooms were introduced for a small admission charge in
Rome.
-the first aqueduct brought in clean water to Rome around 312 B.C.E
-a group of appointed officials cleaned the public roads and controlled the food supply. This
resulted in regulations to ensure the freshness of meat and perishable foods.
-Hippocrates was the first person to see disease as a natural phenomenon, the causes and
treatments were knowable and study able.
-Humoral Theory-a concept of health proposed by Hippocrates that considered wellness a state
of perfect equilibrium among four basic body fluids, called humors. Sickness was believed to be
the result of disturbances in the balance of humors.
-Galen was another great figure in health and medicine, he wrote about anatomy, hygiene, and
diet.
Non-Western Medicine
-Chinese developed traditional oriental medicine (TOM), main principle is that harmony is
essential for good health. Also involved the concept of qi, a vital energy or life force that ebbs
and flows with changes in each persons mental, physical, and emotional well-being.
-Acupuncture, herbal therapy, tai chi, and meditation were also known to restore health by
correcting blockages and imbalances in qi.
The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
-epidemic- literally means, among the people, an epidemic disease is one that spreads rapidly
among many individuals in a community at the same time. A pandemic disease affects people
over a large geographical area.
-there was a return to the supernatural explanations of health and disease
-However in the late 15th century, the renaissance we moved back to the scientific answers and
saw a revitalization of anatomical study and medical practice.
-Vesalius was the first to dissect a human body and found that Galen made many errors when
describing the body
-mind-body dualism- humans have two natures, mental and physical. They are separate
entities and do not interact.
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