GCOM final exam guide.docx

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Communication Studies
Aaron Noland

Chapter 1 1. Common myths about communication a. Communication is a “cure-all” b. Communicating is just common sense c. Communication quality equals quantity 2. 3 models of communication a. Linear: one way phenomenon; involves a sender who sends a message through a channel to a receiver in an atmosphere of noise i. Channel choice ii. Noise can interfere with the sending process 1. Psychological noise iii. Listeners are merely passive targets for information b. Interactive: The ping-pong view; this adds feedback making communication a two way process i. Receivers become senders and senders become receivers ii. Ability to give and receive feedback iii. Fields of experience: includes our cultural background, ethnicity, geographic location, extent of travel, and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of a lifetime c. Transaction: The sender-receiver impact view; People are connected through communication, they engage in a transaction i. Recognizes that each of us is a sender-receiver not just a sender or a receiver ii. Communication effects all parties involved 1. Content dimension: refers to what is actually said and done 2. Relationship dimension: refers to how that message defines or refines the association between individuals d. Important vocab: i. Channel: medium through which a message travels ii. Encode: creates the message iii. Decode: translates the ideas iv. Context: the environment in which communication occurs e. Constructive versus Destructive i. Communication climate: Emotional atmosphere, the pervading or enveloping tone that we create by the way we communicate with others 1. Some climates promote proficiency while others promote deficiency ii. Constructive climate: a pattern of openness and supportiveness, or a confirmation of the worth and value of others and a willingness to help others be successful iii. Destructive communication climate: a pattern of closedness or unwillingness as well as defensiveness 1. Deny 2. Counterattack Chapter 2 1. The perceptual process a. Perception: the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting data from our senses i. Active not passive process ii. Go beyond merely sensing and we begin to make sense of the impulses b. 3 Elements of perception i. Selecting: which stimuli to notice? ii. Organizing: perception does not operate apart from meaning, we must organize selected stimuli to create meaning 1. Schemas: mental frameworks that create meaningful patterns from stimuli 2. Stereotypes: a generalization about a group or category of people 3. Scripts: a predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation iii. Interpreting: Making sense of stimuli 1. Attributions: assigning causes to behavior a. Dispositional: personal characteristics or traits of the individual b. Situational causes: the environment 2. Self concept development a. Self-concept: the sum total of everything that encompasses the self referential term “me” i. We communicate from the perspective of how we see ourselves ii. Not formed in isolation, it is social construction b. Influences on self-concept: i. Reflected appraisal:messages you receive from others that assess your self-concept ii. Social comparison: evaluating yourself by comparing yourself to other people iii. Contingencies of self-worth: what is perceived as most important to you feeling good about yourself c. Protecting ourself i. Self-serving bias: the tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves but to assign external circumstances to our unsuccessful behavior d. Self-disclosure i. Self-disclosure: the process of purposely revealing to others personal information about yourself that is significant and that others would not know unless you told them 1. Depth: refers to how personal you become when discussing a particular subject 2. Breadth: refers to the range of subjects dicussed ii. Guidelines for offering and receiving self-disclosure 1. Trust 2. Two-way sharing 3. Cultural appropriateness 4. Incremental disclosure iii. Importance of reciprocity 1. Demonstrates that risk-taking is shared 2. One way self-disclosure leaves you vulnerable and the other person protected iv. Self-fulfilling prophecy: individuals who expect to be rejected by others behave in ways that fulfill the prophecy; they ultimately get rejected 1. Makes inaccurate stereotypes appear valid v. Fundamental attribution error: overemphasizing personal traits and underemphasizing situations as causes of peoples behavior Chapter 3 1. Culture a. Culture: is a learned set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are shared by an identifiable, large group of people with a common history i. Values: are the most deeply felt, generally shared view of what is deemed good, right, or worthwhile thinking or behavior ii. Beliefs: are what a person thinks to be true or probable iii. Co-culture: a group of people who live in a dominant culture yet remain connected to another cultural heritage that typically exists 1. Differences in values, beliefs and practices from the dominant culture b. Influence of culture on communication i. Uncertainty Reduction Theory: posits that when strangers first meet, their principal goal is to reduce uncertainty and to increase predictability ii. Acculturative stress: the anxiety that comes form the unfamiliarity of new cultural surroundings, rules, norms, and practices and the attempt to adapt to these new circumstances 1. Divergence: refers to things that separate people 2. Convergence: refers to similarities that connect us to others 2. Looking a other cultures a. Ethnocentrism: the notion that one’s own culture is superior to any other b. Cultural relativism: views cultures as merely different, not deficient i. We must respect cultures c. Multiculturalism: a social intellectual movement that promotes the value of diversity as a core principle and insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect and equals i. Mindfulness: is thinking about our communication with others and persistently working to improve it ii. Acculturation: the process of adapting to a culture different from ones own 1. Assimilation: give up everything to be apart of the hosts culture 2. Separation: maintaining ones ethnic identity avoiding contact with the dominant culture 3. Integration: maintaining one’s ethnic culture while also becoming an active part of the dominant culture 3. Individualistic vs. Collectivist cultures a. Individualist culture: has a “me” consciousness. Individuals see themselves as loosely linked to each other and largely independent f group identification i. Emphasis is placed on self-help, self-sufficiency, self- actualization and personal growth ii. Heavier emphasis on personal characteristics b. Collectivist culture: has a “we” consciousness. Individuals see themselves being closely linked to one or more groups i. Commitment is valued to groups ii. Loyalty, responsibility, community c. Individualist cultures typically use a low-context style and collectivist cultures usually use a high context style i. Low-context: verbally precise, direct, and explicit ii. High-context style: uses indirect verbal expression d. Socialization: the communication of shared cultural practices, beliefs, and values from generation to generation i. Process begins early ii. No cultures population is uniformly of one mind 4. Power difference cultures a. Power distance dimension: variations in the acceptability of unequal distribution of power in relationships, insitutions, and organizations i. Low PD culture: a horizontal culture, values relatively equal power sharing and discourages attention to status difference and ranking in society 1. Professors encourage students to call them by their first name ii. High PD culture: vertical culture, relatively strong emphasis on maintaining power difference 1. Children are expected to obey their parents without question 5. Differences between feminine and masculine cultlures a. Gender role stereotypes: the set of expectations defined by each culture that specifies what is appropriate behavior for men and woman b. Masculine-feminine dimension: intersection of gender and culture apparent from gender role stereotypes i. Masculine culture: exhibits stereotypic masculine traits such as male dominance, ambitiousness, assertiveness, competitiveness, and drive for achievement 1. Gender roles are rigid and distinct ii. Feminine culture: exhibits stereotypic feminine traits such as affection, nurturance, sensitivity, compassion, and emotional expressiveness 1. Gender roles are less rigid and more overlapping 2. Communicate in ways that will enhance their relationships Chapter 4 1. Nature of phonemes, morphemes, syntax, and semantics, and their relationship to language a. Phonemes: the individual units of sound that compose a specific spoken language i. Sounds that correspond to consonants, vowels, and consonant combinations b. Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning in language i. You combine phonemes to create morphemes c. Syntax: rules that govern combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences i. Ex. The article and the adjective come before the noun d. Semantics: the set of rules that governs the meaning of words and sentences i. Symbols: are arbitrary representations of objects, events, ideas, or relationships ii. Referents: are the objects, events, ideas, or relationships referred to by the words 1. Lexicon: total vocabulary without conventionally common agreement to use these words with these specific meanings 2. Four essential elements of all languages a. Productivity: capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words, phrases, and sentences you require to communicate your abundance of thoughts and feelings b. Displacement: your ability to use language to talk about objects, ideas, events, and relations that don’t just exist in the physical here and now i. Helps us learn from past mistakes and consider potential solutions for anticipated problems c. Self-reflexive: the ability to use language to talk about language 3. The abstracting process a. Abstracting: the process whereby we formulate increasingly vague conceptions of our world by leaving out details associated with objects, events, and ideas i. Sense experience: approximating our physical world ii. Description: reporting the approximation 1. Descriptions: verbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our sense a. Something is always lost in the report iii. Inference: conclusions about the unknown based on the known 1. An educated guess iv. Judgment: conclusions that assign value, selective evaluation of objects, events, or ideas b. Two versions of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis i. Linguistic determinism: claims we are prisoners of our own language ii. Linguistic relativity: claims the grammar and lexicon of our native language powerfully influences but does not imprison our thinking and perception 4. Connotation vs. Denotation a. Connotation: personal meaning b. Denotation: shared meaning 5. Jargons and euphemisms a. Jargon: verbal shorthand i. Black eye, headache b. Euphemism: a form of linguistic Novocain whereby word choices numb or camouflage unpleasant or offensive realities i. Passed away Chapter 5 1. Differences between verbal and nonverbal communication a. Nonverbal communication: multi-channeled, sharing meaning with others non-linguistically i. Can add impact and believability to a message ii. If not consistent, credibility is questioned iii. Has no discrete beginning and end, we continuously send messages for others to perceive b. Verbal communication: single-channeled i. Has discrete beginnings and endings, we begin it when we start talking, and end it when we stop talking c. Nonverbal and verbal communication is interconnected i. Consistency of verbal and nonverbal communication increases the clarity and credibility 1. Mixed messages: inconsistencies between verbal and nonverbal messages ii. Sometimes nonverbal cues substitute for verbal messages iii. Conversation is regulated by nonverbal cues 2. Functions of nonverbal communication a. Repetition: same message, different channels b. Accentuation: intensifying verbal messages c. Substitution: no words necessary d. Regulation: conversation traffic cop i. Conversation is regulated by nonverbal cues such as long pauses and eye contact e. Contradiction: mixed messages 3. Major types of nonverbal communication a. Kinesics: the study of both facial communication and gestures i. One non-verbal cue may contradict another ii. Facial feedback hypothesis: facial expressions can influence emotions iii. Display rules: culture specific prescriptions that dictate the appropriateness of behaviors iv. Types of gestures 1. Manipulators: gestures made by one part of the body, usually the hands, that rub, pick squeeze, clean or groom another part of the body 2. Illustrators: gestures that help explain what a person says to someone else 3. Emblems: gestures that have precise meanings separate from verbal communication b. Haptics: the study of touch i. Has an important impact on emotional health and well-being ii. Essential to the expression of love, warmth, intimacy, and concern for others iii. However, misuse of touch can repel, frighten or anger others 1. Functional-professional touch: least intense, occurs between doctors and patients 2. Social-polite touch: occurs during initial introductions, business relationships 3. Friendship-warmth touch: most ambiguous type of touch and leads to the most misunderstandings between people 4. Love and intimacy touch: reserved for only a few special individuals 5. Sexual touch: most personal intimate touch and is most restricted iv. Paralanguage: vocal cues 1. Vocal characterizers: yelling, moaning, crying 2. Vocal qualifiers: volume, tone, pitch 3. Vocal segregates: uh, mhmm v. Proxemics: influence that distance and territory have on our communication 1. Strangers stepping into an intimate zone will produce great discomfort, even hostility 2. Not recognizing cultural differences associated with distance can make an individual seem pushy and aggressive vi. Territoriality: predisposition to defend a fixed geographic area, or territory, as ones exclusive dominion 1. We stake out territory in a variety of ways 2. Invasions of territories by others are usually met with physical and verbal aggression Chapter 6 1. Listening: the process of reciving, constructing, and reconstructing meaning from and responding to spoken and or nonverbal messages a. Dynamic and active process 2. Basic elements of listening: a. Listening process beings with comprehension i. Comprehending phonemes ii. Comprehending morphemes b. Retaining: memory is essential to the listening process i. Information bulimia: bingeing on information to pass then exam, then purging it from your mind after it is over ii. Using information immediately enhances retention 1. Use it or lose it iii. Benefits of forgetting 1. Remembering everything you hear would be a curse iv. Retention is diminished when our listening is mindless- little effort is made to attend c. Responding: providing feedback i.
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