Life Span and Human Development Study Guide.docx

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PSYC 160
Claire Lyons

particular stage, or if they receive too much gratification, fixation may occur 1. Fixation: behavior reflecting an unresolved conflict ii. The Behavioral Perspective: Focusing on Observable Behavior 1. John B. Watson a. Behavioral perspective: suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and environmental stimuli; if we know a stimuli we can predict the behavior i. Reject the notion that people universally pass through a series of stages ii. Behavior is the result of continuing exposure to specific factors in the environment b. Classical conditioning: i. He believed that by effectively controlling or conditioning a person’s environment, it was possible to produce virtually any type of behavior ii. Classical conditioning: occurs when an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus 2. B.F. Skinner a. Operant Conditioning: i. Is a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences ii. Individuals learn to operate on their environments in order to bring about desired consequences 1. Reinforcement: the process by which a behavior is followed by a stimulus that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated 2. Punishment: the introduction of an unpleasant or painful stimulus or the removal of a desirable stimulus, will decrease the probability that a preceding behavior will occur in the future 3. Albert Bandura a. Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: Learning through imitation
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