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[CHEM 1212] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 24 pages long Stu..
[CHEM 1212] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 24 pages long Study Guide!

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Kennesaw State University
CHEM 1212
Jennifer Kelley

[CHEM 1212] Comprehensive Final Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Chapter 11.1-11.9 Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces ● Properties of matter are determined by the properties of molecules and atoms 11.1 Water, No Gravity: ● Intermolecular forces - Attractive forces that exist among the particles that compose matter. The molecules attract other water molecules. ● Intermolecular forces exist among all particles that compose matter. ● The state of matter ( gas, solid, liquid) depends on the magnitude of the intermolecular forces along with the amount of thermal energy. ● Molecules composing matter are in constant random motion that are increased with the amount of thermal energy. ● Increasing thermal energy with intermolecular forces = gaseous; Decreasing thermal energy with intermolecular forces = liquid or solid 11.2 Solids, Liquids, and Gases: A Molecular Comparison ● Densities of solids and liquids are much greater than gases ● For water, solids are slightly less dense than liquids. This is atypical behavior because molecules move closer upon freezing (solids). ● Ice however is a unique solid that is less dense than water because the unique crystal structure results in water molecules moving slightly apart upon freezing. ● Molecules closely spaced (solids and liquids) are not easily compressed, while molecules widely spaced (gases) are highly compressible. ● Solids can be crystalline - atoms are arranged in a well ordered 3D array - or amorphous - atoms have no long range order. ● Changed between states can be achieved by changing temperature and/or pressure. High pressure = denser (solids). Lower pressure = less dense (gases) 11.3 Intermolecular Forces: The Forces that hold Condensed States Together ● The structure that composes a substance determines the strength of the intermolecular forces that hold the substance together which then determines the state of the substance. ● At room temperature ○ Solids and Liquids → Moderate to strong intermolecular forces (High Melting & Boiling Points) ○ Gases → Weak intermolecular forces (Low Melting & Boiling Points) ● Intermolecular forces originate from interactions among charges, partial charges, and temporary charges. ● Protons and electrons are attracted to one another because their potential energy decreases as they get closer. ● Intermolecular forces are much weaker than bonding forces. ● Bonding forces are large charges at close distance. ● Intermolecular forces are small charges acting at great distances. ● To break O-H bonds in water (1000 degrees Celsius) but to break the intermolecular cond (100 degrees Celsius) ← boiling point. find more resources at
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